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Volume 52 (2020), Number 1

Scientist and Author Ainissa Ramirez: An InterviewRead more about this article on page 29.

A publication of the American Institute of Physics

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Staff Members

AIP Member Societies

Gregory A. Good, Director, Center for History of PhysicsMelanie Mueller, Director, Niels Bohr Library & ArchivesJoanna Behrman, Assistant Public HistorianChip Calhoun, Digital ArchivistNathan Cromer, Graphic & Web DesignerRyan Hearty, NASA Oral History FellowGabriel Henderson, Associate HistorianSamantha Holland, AV/Media ArchivistK. Jae, Manuscript ArchivistStephanie Jankowski, Senior Administrative SupportAudrey Lengel, Digital Collections ManagerCorinne Mona, Assistant LibrarianJon Phillips, Assistant Oral HistorianAllison Rein, Associate Director of Library Collections and ServicesSarah Weirich, Metadata SpecialistDavid Zierler, Oral Historian

This newsletter is a biannual publication of the Center for History of Physics, American Institute of Physics, 1 Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740; phone: +1.301.209.3165; email: [emailprotected] or [emailprotected]. Editor: Gregory A. Good. The newsletter reports activities of the Center for History of Physics, Niels Bohr Library & Archives, and other information on work in the history of the physical sciences.

Any opinions expressed herein do not necessarily represent the views of the American Institute of Physics or its Member Societies. This newsletter is available on request without charge, but we welcome donations (tax deductible) (www.aip.org/donate). The newsletter is posted on the web at www.aip.org/history-programs/history-newsletter.

Acoustical Society of AmericaAmerican Association of Physicists in MedicineAmerican Association of Physics TeachersAmerican Astronomical SocietyAmerican Crystallographic AssociationAmerican Meteorological SocietyAmerican Physical SocietyAVS: Science and Technology of Materials, Interfaces, and ProcessingThe Optical SocietyThe Society of Rheology

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IN THIS ISSUEChanges in the World, Changes in History at AIP

Optimism and Other Physicists: Notes from the Niels Bohr Library

From the Development Office

The Blustine Collection: An Addition to the Emilio Segrè Visual Archives

The Meteorologist, the Library, and the Hurricane: The José Fernández Partagás Papers

The International Commission for the History of Physics

AIP’s Grants-in-Aid Program: Encouraging New Projects in History of Physical Science

Conceptual Physics: The Evolution of Paul G. Hewitt’s Influential Textbook

A Retrospective on My Postdoc at CHP

A Highlight of the Wenner Collection of Rare Books: The Natural History of Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707–1788)

Welcome Message from the Oral Historian

Reviving a Tradition: A Course on the History of Quantum Mechanics at the University of Copenhagen

Scientist and Author Ainissa Ramirez: An Interview

Documentation Preserved

Friends of the Center for History of Physics
















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www.aip.org/history-programs4 History Newsletter | Volume 52, No. 1

Once upon a time, scientists and historians convened large confer-ences and congresses, different fields of endeavor coming together at different times, on different schedules. Some attracted 25,000 to 30,000 attendees; some maxed out at 25 or 30, for thematic, in-tense interactions. In recent years I have attended a number of these meetings as part of my involvement in AIP’s Member Societies and in my roles in the international organizing of history of science, my profession. In 2019 I attended conferences with meteorologists, physicists, geophysicists, astronomers, and historians of each of those sciences. We also hosted the History Observatory Workshop at AIP. The big picture beyond these details is that scientists from many fields and countries took these face-to-face interactions for granted. So did we historians of science.

That stopped for me with the centenary of the American Meteorological Society in Boston in January 2020. It was a large and festive meeting, a celebration. The attention to the history of AMS and of meteorology was wonderful. And then one confer-ence was canceled in March, and another, and another. Now we are facing a new normal of some kind, with new concerns about conferences and other travel.

The photos (right) are meant to convey this sense of loss, although they were taken at the last meeting of the American Meteorological Society in January 2020. Imagine the empty conference centers as an image of what we are losing every day in science and schol-arship. While we attempt to make up for this loss via virtual con-nections, and we all hope that face-to-face meetings will again be possible someday, we also must think broadly about how we can maintain our wide connections and interactions without coming together physically. Technology and software platforms provide part of the answer, as the rapid rise of Zoom has shown. But there are people involved, so the answers must go beyond mere soft-ware. We need to seek connections and build community with even more intentionality than before, and we must become more conscious of conserving Earth’s resources.

As I write this, we are in the ninth week of lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We are very fortunate that AIP has been so responsible in its planning for risk and contingency. Our work

has continued remotely without skipping a beat. I have watched my colleagues adapt and draw together with creativity and ded-ication. Nevertheless, we all deal with the psychological effects of isolation and the fear or reality that this virus can touch us or our loved ones. Thank you, colleagues in the History Center, the Niels Bohr Library & Archives, and around AIP! Adaptability is one of our strengths.

CHANGES IN THE WORLD, CHANGES IN HISTORY AT AIPBy Greg Good, Director, Center for History of Physics

Plenary lecture hall at the 2019 Centennial Meeting of the International Union

of Geodesy and Geophysics, before and during sessions. Photos by Greg Good.

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www.aip.org/history-programs 5History Newsletter | Volume 52, No. 1

As a historian, I should reflect on this strange pandemic year, its effects on the Center for History of Physics (CHP), and how I see it changing us in the future. CHP was already growing and chang-ing, as I related in the 2019 Newsletter, supported by endowment growth, generous donors and foundations, and, importantly to me, by the officers of AIP and the AIP Board of Directors. We have even hired staff for two new positions during the lockdown.

The pandemic has affected every activity of the Center for History of Physics. We had to postpone the first two in-person Lyne Starling Trimble Science Heritage Public Lectures of 2020. Joe Martin was to speak in March on “When Condensed Matter Physics Became King” and Kathy Olesko in April on “Geopolitics and Measurement: The Politics of Prussian Precision.” Alas, we will have to wait until safer times to bring a live audience to-gether again with a speaker—which we certainly hope to do! Meanwhile, though, we quickly pivoted to producing two Virtual Trimble Lectures for April and May. Astrophysicist Jennifer J. Wiseman, senior project scientist on NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope mission, spoke on “The Hubble Space Telescope: 30 Years of Discovery and Awe.” Dr. Wiseman was followed by Elizabeth Kessler, a historian at Stanford University. Dr. Kessler placed the images of HST in the context of “the astronomical sub-lime.” Both of these, and earlier Trimble Lectures, can be found at the AIP History YouTube channel. Thanks to the support of

AIP’s Media Services and Marketing teams, hundreds of people attended or have viewed these two lectures, a significant increase over our usual audience. AIP’s meeting planner, IT department, and Media Services group provided production assistance.

The oral history program at the History Center was also affected. Clearly we could not continue in-person interviews, especially given that many interviewees are in vulnerable populations. Oral historian David Zierler shifted to online interviews in March and has even accelerated the rate of interviewing. Online interviewing is new territory for CHP, and it will help us to debug the process and take advantage of new opportunities without compromising standards.

Our most disrupted activity has been in the support of the com-munity of historians of science and other scholars and researchers. Normally we provide grants in aid to bring people to archives at AIP or elsewhere, and there were people queued up for such research trips. Their grants are being held open for them. Much of this work cannot be done remotely, since most archival col-lections are still in paper form and library/archive staff cannot be present to digitize sources, even if the researcher can identify them from afar.

CHP’s Fifth Early-Career Conference for Historians of the Physical Sciences was to occur in Copenhagen at the Niels Bohr Institute in September 2020, but we have postponed it until September 2021. The goal of this conference is to bring together early-career historians of physical science globally and to pro-vide a forum for them to explore current issues in history and to compare experiences. The organizing committee—five ear-ly-career scholars from Canada, the US, the UK, Germany, and Denmark—decided against holding this conference virtually be-cause of its strong emphasis on networking and mutual support. The committee is thinking about ways to use social media and video platforms during the extra year, perhaps to build informal connections. These remote interactions cannot replace getting to know each other over meals, face-to-face, but remote interaction can prepare the way for getting together later.Jennifer J. Wiseman (left) and Elizabeth A. Kessler (right). Photos provided by

each speaker accordingly. continued on page 6

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www.aip.org/history-programs6 History Newsletter | Volume 52, No. 1

It is ironic that 2019 was a banner year for the history of phys-ics at international conferences. At the annual History of Science Society meeting, held in Utrecht, the Netherlands, historians of physics and astronomy were surprised to hear several plenary lec-tures discuss AIP’s role in history of physics in the 1960s.

Like physicists and other scientists, CHP has been building bridg-es to similar programs in other countries, in particular, India, Japan, and China in recent years. In October 2019 I was invited to attend and speak at the First World Science and Technology Development Forum in Beijing, China. The Forum was jointly organized by the Chinese Association for Science and Technology (CAST), the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and the Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE). The other non-Chinese attendees included academics, government scientists, scientific publishers, and investors and NGO development officials. The fo-rum focused on three themes: S&T, Education, and Culture; S&T, Revolution, and industrial Transformation; and Growth of Young Scientists and SMEs (subject matter experts). I spoke on the pas-sage of science from culture to culture and about the tension be-tween local or national scientific cultures and the aspiration for global understanding and communication.

My host institution in China was the National Academy of Innovation Strategy (NAIS). Three scholars from NAIS had visit-ed AIP for three months in 2018–2019, learning about our history, library, and archival activities. I met anew with these scholars and others at the Project of Collecting Historic Data of Old Scientists’ Academic Life (the Collection Project) in Beijing. They showed me their large collection of precious historical materials, includ-ing over 7000 hours of videos, over 8700 hours of audio re-cordings, and hundreds of thousands of manuscript and digital materials. The Collection Project shares the goals of AIP’s CHP and NBL&A to preserve the records of physical science and to make them known. This will take active collaboration of AIP with these Chinese institutions, as well as with others in Japan, India, and elsewhere. The goal is to make the sources for the history of physics discoverable by researchers, no matter what country the archives are in, no matter where the researchers are. While the solution to this problem includes a global computer database, communication across different cultures also requires getting to know each other and the very different institutional systems in which we work. Not everything is possible everywhere.

It was very fortunate that I was able to undertake the visit to Beijing in October 2019, as I had visited Japan in 2018 and India earlier, to establish the personal and institutional relations on which future international collaboration will rely. We in profes-sional societies generally—and at AIP and its Member Societies in particular—must accept the responsibility of continuing to build our international communities of open, curious investigators. The

Plenary session of History of Science Society in the Domkerk of Utrecht,

Netherlands. Photo by Greg Good.

David DeVorkin (Smithsonian Institution) presenting in a history of astronomy

session at HSS, Utrecht. Photo by Greg Good.

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pandemic has changed the ground rules for interaction, giving greater emphasis to virtual exchange. We must make that serve the greater goal of community.

I close with a few notes on developments in the staff and “prod-ucts” of the Center for History of Physics. First, we say goodbye in May to Gabriel Henderson, who has been the CHP Postdoctoral Fellow for three years. We will miss the tea breaks and discus-sions of science policy and risk!

The oral history program has taken a second step in increasing its capacity. Jon Phillips began his new position as assistant oral historian at the beginning of May. Jon had been a NASA Oral History Fellow at AIP and is now managing the workflow of the program. The History Center is also pleased to announce the hir-ing of Joanna Behrman as assistant public historian in charge of K-12 engagement and public programs. CHP is poised for an ex-hilarating period of reinvention, with more positions and more ca-pacity, and also with an opportunity to engage people with science through its history.

The History of Science Web Exhibits are moving ahead with both refreshed designs and with new exhibits. Now open is a rede-signed exhibit, “Bright Idea: The First Lasers,” in time to mark the 60th anniversary of the fertile year for lasers, 1960. We also completed an update to the content of the exhibit “Marie Curie and the Science of Radioactivity.” In the coming months we will also open two new exhibits on climate modeling and on a “heroic” age of marine geophysics, the voyages of the Vema, a research vessel of Columbia University.

The NASA Heliophysics Oral History Project is now winding down as an official project. Interviews will continue because we have identified so many more scientists who should be in-terviewed. We are beginning to write up a report on the lessons learned and continuing with transcriptions and editing of inter-view transcripts. Over the duration of the project we have had six NASA Oral History Fellows, conducted over 60 interviews, and amassed a trove of research material and documentation. We see this project as a “prototype” of other “History Observatory” projects that can be undertaken with external funding, either from NASA, another agency, or a private foundation. Many alluring topics await consideration, from planetary science to LIGO to the 30-meter telescope. At this point, the Center for History of Physics needs to look at these possibilities with a critical eye and a firm understanding of our existing capabilities. Entrance to museum and archives of the Project of Collecting Historic Data

of Scientists’ Academic Life. Left to right: Prof. Yang Zhihong (director of the

Collection Project, NAIS, CAST), Prof. Lv Ruihua (leader of the “Collection

Base,” Beijing Institute of Technology), Greg Good (director, CHP, AIP), Zhang

Zhengzheng (AIP), and Gao Wenjing (NAIS, the Collection Project). Photo by

Wang Yanyu, 2019.

Greg Good in front of the Forbidden City, Beijing. Photo by Gao Wenjing.

Greg Good speaking at the First World Science and Technology Development

Forum. Photo by Li Xiang.

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www.aip.org/history-programs8 History Newsletter | Volume 52, No. 1

The Niels Bohr Library & Archives has recently acquired a rath-er unusual book of poetry and photographs written by missionary and physicist Laura Dickinson. Despite its unassuming cover, this book, entitled Optimism and Other Poems, has some unique touch-es, including an inscription by the author to a cousin, as well as, still tucked within its pages, a bookmark belonging to an early owner. It’s also notable for the history of its author, who lived a relatively obscure life but one devoted to what might seem today to be an unusual combination of professions.

Laura Dickinson, the first professor of physics and chemistry at Spelman College, pursued a career combining science education and missionary work. Although this path might seem odd to mod-ern-day physics students, it was relatively common for women in science before the Second World War. Laura Dickinson’s life re-veals some of the interesting but lesser-known history of what it was like to be a missionary and a woman in physics.

Laura Austin Dickinson was born in North Amherst, Massachusetts, on November 15, 1870. She had two siblings, a brother Raymond and a sister Louisa. In 1889 Laura Dickinson and her sister enrolled at Mount Holyoke College. All students took a basic introducto-ry physics course in their junior year that used Atkinson’s transla-tion of Ganot as the textbook, accompanied by some work in the laboratory (Mount Holyoke 20). Dickinson would have taken this physics class with Prof. Marcia A. Keith. Keith, who worked at Mount Holyoke College between 1885 and 1903, is famous as one of the two women present at the founding of the American Physical Society—the other being Isabelle Stone, who was then a professor of physics at Vassar College (Rossiter 89).

Dickinson seems to have been well liked at Mount Holyoke. She was described in her 1893 commencement book as “A brave and true and downright honest woman,” and her classmates predicted she would become a lady of high society after graduation. As a young woman, Dickinson was perhaps too honest. Once, after be-ing complimented by a teacher on a fluent translation of a text for class, Dickinson responded, “O, I got that out of a book in the li-brary” (Commencement 24,36,21).

But Dickinson didn’t choose the path of a lady of society, instead devoting herself to teaching and missionary work. For the next two decades she taught at a variety of schools, including three

directed by the American Missionary Association (AMA) in the southern United States. The AMA was a Protestant abolitionist so-ciety founded in the North, which worked after the Civil War to educate African Americans in the South. The AMA founded prima-ry and secondary schools as well as institutes of higher education. “Our general policy has been to prepare the race to save the race,” proclaimed the Secretary of the AMA in 1896 (Richardson 16). Part of this strategy was the training of future Black teachers at teachers’ colleges, then called normal schools. The AMA hired many of the graduates to work at their former alma maters, although many white women such as Dickinson also worked as instructors, particularly in the early years. For instance, Dickinson taught mathematics in the normal department of the LeMoyne Institute (now LeMoyne-Owen College) in Memphis, Tennessee (Alumnae 33).

Dickinson was one of many female physicists who taught at mis-sionary schools in the United States or abroad in the 19th and 20th

centuries. Mount Holyoke College especially produced a large number of female scientist-missionaries, including other physicists such as Sara Boddie Downer and Edith Marion Coon. Science was a vehicle for missionary work, and vice versa. As historian Miriam Levin has noted, Mount Holyoke’s early institutional connections with evangelical movements opened up opportunities for graduates to fill positions in education, and theology also offered the women a moral claim for their work in science. Female scientists at Mount Holyoke argued that through the study of nature they and their stu-dents could attain individual perfection (Levin 6).

In the fall of 1913 Dickinson went to teach at Spelman Seminary. Spelman had been founded in 1881 by white northern female mis-sionaries with backing from John D. Rockefeller and the American Baptist Home Mission. Spelman offered academic, industrial, and religious education to uplift Black women while holding them to strict ideals of respectable Black Christian womanhood (Case 11, 68–9). At first Dickinson taught science classes for the seminary’s high school track, but the institution was on an upward growth trajectory, and so was Dickinson. In 1924 Spelman Seminary be-came Spelman College and was recognized by the Georgia State Department of Education with an “A” grade (Read 199–202). That year Dickinson took a sabbatical to the University of Michigan, where she earned a Master’s in Physics, and returned to take her new position as professor of physics and chemistry (Faculty 1932). Spelman College continues to flourish as one of a few historically


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www.aip.org/history-programs 9History Newsletter | Volume 52, No. 1

Black women’s colleges—and it is currently the only one to offer a major in physics.

Laura Dickinson taught at Spelman College until 1933 when she retired to care for her ailing sister. During the summers, Dickinson took classes from Columbia University, the University of Michigan, the University of Chicago, and the American Academy in Rome. And it was at the Academy that Dickinson took the photographs featured in her 1929 book, Optimism and Other Poems. The poems in the book speak to her own faith and its motivating role in her life. In a section entitled Laboratory Musings, Dickinson includes a poem entitled “Electrons and Protons” as well as one entitled “The Maker.” Including “The Maker” among her Laboratory Musings clearly indicates the connection Dickinson made between work in the laboratory and understanding the role of the Divine in the world.

The idea that religion and science are fundamentally opposed to each other is routinely debunked in the history of physics. From Kepler to Maxwell, there have been numerous examples of reli-gious physicists who viewed their efforts to understand the natu-ral world as intimately connected to their faith. Laura Dickinson’s writings offer an opportunity to explore the relatively understudied world of women who melded science and religion in pursuit of oc-cupational opportunities as educators and missionaries.

References:• Alumnae Notes. 1900. The Mount Holyoke 10: 28–35. Mount

Holyoke College.• Case, Sarah 2017. Leaders of Their Race: Educating Black

and White Women in the New South. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

• Commencement Issue. 1893. The Mount Holyoke. Mount Holyoke College.

• Faculty Statistics, Spelman College. 1932. Folder “Dickinson, Laura A.” Albert Manley Presidential Collection, Box 38. Spelman College Archives.

• Levin, Miriam R. 2005. Defining Women’s Scientific Enterprise: Mount Holyoke Faculty and the Rise of American Science. Hanover: University Press of New England.

• Mount Holyoke Seminary and College. 1899. Annual Catalogue of the Mt. Holyoke Seminary and College in South Hadley, MA. 1888–9. South Hadley, MA: Mt. Holyoke Seminary and College.

• Read, Florence M. 1961. The Story of Spelman College. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

• Richardson, Joe M. and Jones, Maxine D. 2009. Education for Liberation: The American Missionary Association and African Americans, 1890 to the Civil Rights Movement. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.

• Rossiter, Margaret. 1982. Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies to 1940. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

“The Maker” is included in a subsection of Dickinson’s book entitled

Laboratory Musings. Photo by Allison Rein.

The NBL&A has recently acquired this copy of Optimism and Other Poems by

Laura Dickinson, published in 1929. Photo by Allison Rein.

This bookmark was tucked in the pages and likely belonged to an early owner.

It reads: “Watch your friends your enemies can’t hurt you.” Photo by Allison Rein.

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www.aip.org/history-programs10 History Newsletter | Volume 52, No. 1

Gifts from individuals make a tremendous impact on the Center for History of Physics. This year, gifts from foundations and in-dividuals helped AIP further develop key services in the histo-ry of natural sciences. For example, the oral history program in the Center for History of Physics received a generous leadership gift in February 2020 in support of transcribing, editing, and pro-ducing more oral histories. This gift of $125,000 from an anon-ymous donor will support the management and coordination of the oral history program. David Zierler, former historian at the U.S. Department of State, joined Greg Good, the Spencer Weart Director of the Center for History of Physics, in November 2019 and will facilitate and carry out interviews across the country.

David Zierler observes, “This is a particularly exciting time at AIP. Under Greg Good’s leadership, the Center for History of Physics is growing, expanding its reach, building its contacts in the broader history of science community, and pursuing strategic institutional partnerships with stakeholders throughout the phys-ics world. We are incredibly lucky to enjoy strong support, both from the leadership at AIP and from generous outside benefactors who recognize the work we are doing. The oral history program is central to these developments. As oral historian, I am reinvig-orating our partnerships with the history liaisons of our valued Member Societies, I am building interviewee target lists to ensure that we capture oral histories of physicists whose personal life stories and career contributions are of major historical import, and I am working internally with divisions across AIP to ensure that our oral histories fully support the Institute’s mission.”

The oral history program is also supported by an endowment from the Avenir Foundation, which has provided enduring support for over a decade. To visit the oral history collection and search for detailed interviews, go to www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories.

Another critical function of the Center for History of Physics— engagement with K-12 students and educators and with the pub-lic—is poised to take a big step forward due the growth of the Meggers endowment. In July 2020, the Center for History of Physics will welcome Joanna Behrman as assistant public his-torian. She will bring an enriched understanding of the physical sciences and their history to school-age populations. She will also promote public programming for the History Center. Thanks to the Meggers endowment, the AIP History Teaching Guides, History of Science Web Exhibits, and public lectures will get the dedicated attention they need to reach increasing audiences.

As was announced in the last newsletter, the History Center will soon implement a fellowship program supported by a bequest from the Dutch-American physicist Robert H.G. Helleman. This program is the first step toward establishing a more robust global research center in the history of the physical sciences. This activi-ty will be supplemented by our partnership with the University of Maryland through the AIP-endowed professor in history of natu-ral science, Dr. Melinda Baldwin.

FROM THE DEVELOPMENT OFFICEBy Mariann Salisbury, Director of Major Gifts

What LEGACY will you leave?We all desire significance—to lead happy and fulfilled lives surrounded by family and friends. For many of us, there is a compelling need to make a difference—to leave a lasting impact on the people most dear to us and the world in which we live. The search for significance and desire to plan for the future leads many to ponder their legacy. What kind of legacy will you leave?

Please contact us to learn how you can make a difference in the lives and causes you love. Email: [emailprotected] • Phone: (301) 209-3006

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www.aip.org/history-programs 11History Newsletter | Volume 52, No. 1


In the very first weeks filling my new position, AV/media archivist, the library received emails from a potential donor of photographs. With the realization that it was now my job to handle things like donations, I responded to the donor—a gentleman named Martin Blustine—with both nervousness and excitement.

My nervousness, I quickly learned, was not necessary. Martin was very kind and eager to share any and all information he had surrounding the photos, which he himself had taken back in the 1970s with his Mamiya C330 medium format camera. As he sorted through his personal collection and found the photo negatives, he made high-resolution scans and sent them to me. I immediately saw that he was a very talented photographer and felt quite lucky that we could include his images in the Emilio Segrè Visual Archives (you’ll see what I mean in a moment!).

Furthermore, as he continued to share images with me, I was able to learn more about him. Martin is a physics graduate of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. After receiving his master’s degree, he worked at Mount Holyoke College as a physics instructor prior to moving to a career in industry. He also shared a few wonderful sto-ries about Richard Feynman and Eugene Wigner with me.

Here are a few of the lovely images from our newly acquired Blustine Collection. I hope you will enjoy them as much as I have!

Image 1: I just love this portrait of Mildred Allen! I must say it is my very favorite from the new collection. Beyond being just a love-ly shot, the visual archives have only a small handful of images of Allen, the well-known physicist who spent a large majority of her career at Mount Holyoke. I am so pleased to add one more! Martin took this photo in March 1974, at Mildred’s 80th birthday celebra-tion. Here is what he had to say about her:

“I think that it is important to point out that Mildred Allen was vast-ly ahead of her time. I am sure that, as a woman in science, she faced incredible barriers, although she never admits to such in her interview.” (The interview mentioned here is Allen’s oral history interview with Katherine Sopka in June 1979, available at the Niels Bohr Library & Archives.)

Image 2: Samuel Goudsmit lectured at the Mount Holyoke physics department in March 1974. In our collection of Goudsmit’s papers (which you can find online in NBL&A’s digital collections), letters to the Department of Physics chairman, Edward Philbrook Clancy, show Goudsmit planning when he would arrive and what he would discuss in the lecture! I must give credit for this awesome connec-tion to Martin! He looked through our digital collections and found the correspondence which confirmed the date of his picture.

continued on page 12



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Image 3: Here is a shot of astronomer R. Bruce Partridge giving a lecture. Martin recalled that this photograph had been taken at Mount Holyoke in the early 1970s. Partridge later retired with emeritus status from Haverford College after serving on its faculty for 38 years. Quite recently, he was also awarded (alongside his team) the Gruber Prize for Cosmology for his contributions to the European Space Agency’s Planck Satellite Project.

Image 4: British-American astrophysicist Margaret E. Burbidge was also a guest lecturer at the Mount Holyoke College physics depart-ment. A few highlights from Burbidge’s impressive career include having been director of the Royal Observatory of Greenwich and president of both the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the American Astronomical Society (AAS). Last year—right around the time that Martin first emailed me about the photos—she turned 100 years old! Burbridge recently passed away on April 5, 2020.

Image 5: Physicist, sculptor, and architect Robert Rathbun Wilson is shown here, lecturing at Mount Holyoke. He is best known for his work at the Los Alamos Laboratory during WWII and as the first director at Fermilab. I was interested to learn that Wilson prac-ticed all his areas of expertise at Fermilab, not just physics. He de-signed many sculptures and architectural pieces to decorate the site.

Image 6: Lastly, a challenge! Martin and I tried to identify this lecturer, of whom he had taken quite a few pictures, but the mystery remains! To remind you, this was taken somewhere in the early 1970s at Mount Holyoke.

Can you help us identify this physicist? If so, please send the in-formation to [emailprotected]. We would love to properly describe the photographs and to finally solve the mystery of the unidentified lecturer!

Martin Blustine witnessed and documented the lectures and cel-ebrations of many scientists during his time at Mount Holyoke. I’m so grateful that he was able to capture these images and that he is generous enough to share them with us all many years later. Furthermore, as the first photograph donor to reach out to ESVA since I began working with our photos, it was a pleasure conversing with him and learning the background of each photograph. Martin, if you are reading this, thank you again!

The Emilio Segrè Visual Archives strives to collect, preserve, and share high-quality photographs and digital copies of images relat-ing to the physical sciences. Readers, if you have original photo-graphic collections like this one that you would like to see included in the ESVA, I would love to work with you! If you would like to learn more about the donations process or discuss photos in your possession, please reach out to me at [emailprotected].





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Last August, I began working on our annual archival survey with the other archivists on staff. For the past 20+ years, the Niels Bohr Library & Archives has maintained the International Catalog of Sources (ICOS), a catalog of physics primary source materials that are available at institutions around the world (you can read more about ICOS and our work in past newsletters and on our website). We survey the catalogs of archives to find new collections of pa-pers, photographs, and other materials that have been added since the previous round of surveys, and it is a labor of love. This year was my first one participating in the survey, and for me, it ended up being a fascinating dive into historic collections of physicists’ papers all around the world.

As I was adding records to ICOS, I couldn’t help but learn about the individuals and organizations who were the subjects of these archival collections. One particular collection struck me because I thought there was a typo in the biographical note section:

“José J. Fernández Partagás died in the Otto G. Richter Library of the University of Miami on August 23, 1997.”

I read the sentence multiple times to make sure I was reading it correctly. He died in the library? Surely this was a mistake and a cataloger had accidentally pasted the name of the library instead of a city name. I investigated further, and sure enough, the sub-ject of the collection, meteorologist and hurricane researcher José Fernández Partagás, did pass away in the library at the University of Miami (Loney 69).

Throughout the month of August as I continued surveying and cataloging new collections, I couldn’t stop thinking about the José Fernández Partagás Papers. The Atlantic hurricane season was also ramping up; August through October are traditionally the months when the most hurricanes and tropical storms occur in the Atlantic (Landsea E17). Every time a news story broke about a developing storm, Dr. Fernández Partagás came to mind and I would wonder more and more about his work and legacy. Here are the results of my curiosity.

Born in Havana, Cuba, in May, 1935, Fernández Partagás earned both his bachelor’s degree in science and letters and his doctor-ate in physics and mathematics in Havana, at the Edison Institute and University of Havana, respectively. Fleeing his country after the Cuban Revolution, he emigrated to the United States in 1961, where he obtained his master of science in meteorology from the Florida State University. He returned to the Caribbean to work for the Civil Aviation Division of the Bahamian Weather Service for a couple of years before accepting a research position at the University of Miami, where he worked for 20+ years (Gross 2907).

During his long career, he published numerous academic pa-pers—in both Spanish and English—and occasionally appeared on Spanish radio and television as a guest meteorologist. His papers and records, however, donated by Fernández Partagás and held by the University of Miami, focus on his later, less traditional meteo-rological work.

continued on page 14

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In his retirement, he began working with the National Hurricane Center (NHC) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) on a research project to compile informa-tion from microfilmed newspapers containing ship logs and land-fall weather reports to reconstruct historical cyclone tracks from as far back as 1850. He spent years at the University of Miami Otto G. Richter Library, scouring through reports from papers such as the New York Times, the Miami Metropolis, and La Gaceta de la Habana, translating these records into datasets of past hurri-cane and tropical storm details from 1850 to 1910 (Rappaport and Fernández Partagás).

This work must have been incredibly tedious, but Fernández Partagás knew that its value was well worth the effort; by add-ing these storm records to the Atlantic Hurricane Database (HURDAT), meteorologists can have a more accurate view of past storms and can better assess and predict future storms and their impacts. According to Chris Landsea from NOAA, “Efforts led by the late José Fernández Partagás to uncover previously undocumented historical hurricanes in the mid-1800s to early 1900s have greatly increased our knowledge of these past events, which also had not been incorporated into the hurricane database” (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration).

Storm data gathered by Fernández Partagás has been useful to nonmeteorologists as well. Author Erik Larson cited this data as a source he relied on when writing Isaac’s Storm, a book which chronicles a 1900 storm that struck Galveston, Texas (Larson and Cline 282).

By August of 1997, Fernández Partagás had made his way through 60+ years of records and was diligently recording news-paper data of the 1910s when he passed away, in the Richter Library on the University of Miami campus, where he did most of his work.

With no living family to claim his body, his NHC colleagues wanted to give him a proper send-off, fitting of a scientist who made it his life’s mission to study tropical storms and hurri-canes: they scattered his ashes into Hurricane Danielle deep in the Atlantic Ocean. NHC researcher Peter Black recalls what he said as he was scattering Fernández Partagás’s ashes:

“We’re gathered here at 10 P.M. Eastern daylight time on the 31st of August, 1998, for a brief ceremony to honor the memory of Jose Fernandez Partegas [sic], and to scatter his ashes into the eye of Hurricane Danielle, at 28.0 North, 74.2 West, thus returning Jose [sic] to the hurricanes he loved and which formed his life’s work” (NPR Zwerdling).

Although José Fernández Partagás is not a household name, his legacy lives on through his work and the research still being conducted utilizing his data. As the 2020 hurricane season ap-proaches, meteorologists will continue to consult recent data in HURDAT, alongside the historic data gathered by Fernández Partagás, and utilize it to create models. As an archivist, I place a high importance on preserving and sharing the stories of all types of physicists and scientists, which often happens through preserving and sharing the work they’ve done and the records they leave behind. José Fernández Partagás’s collection and work resides in the Cuban Heritage Collection at the University of Miami Libraries, serving as a valuable resource (a beacon, if you will) for future researchers, just as his data serves science.

José Fernández Partagás (left) and Bob Burpee at the Oceanic and Atmospheric

Research Labs as Hurricane Andrew approached landfall, 1992. Photo by Peter

Dodge, courtesy of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Dr. Fernández Partagás in Richter Library, March 1994. Credit: José Fernández

Partagás Papers, Cuban Heritage Collection, University of Miami Libraries, Coral

Gables, Florida.

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In the Fall of 2019, three colleagues and I here at the Niels Bohr Library & Archives added over 90 new collections to ICOS, each one with its own stories to tell.

Note: Special thanks to NPR’s Research, Archives, and Data Strategy team for providing online access to the archival audio referenced in this article and to the University of Miami’s Cuban Heritage Collection team for the labor required to preserve and make accessible the José Fernández Partagás Papers and for pro-viding the images featured in this article.

References:• Gross, James M. 1997. José J. Fernández Partagás,

1935–1997. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 78: 2907. https://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/1520-0477-78.12.2900

• Landsea, Chris. 2019. Total and Average Number of Tropical Cyclones by Month (1851–2018). Hurricane Research Division, NOAA: E17. https://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/E17.html

• Larson, Erik and Cline, Isaac Monroe. 1999. Isaac’s storm: a man, a time, and the deadliest hurricane in history. New York: Vintage Books.

• Loney, Jim. 1998. “Hurricane Buff Rests in Peace in Eye of Storm.” Los Angeles Times Friday, September 18, 1998: 69. https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1998-sep-06-mn-19941-story.html

• National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003. NOAA REVISITS HISTORIC HURRICANES. https://web.archive.org/web/20170509044509/http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories/s2005.htm

• Rappaport, Edward N. and Fernández Partagás, José. 1995. The Deadliest Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, 1492–1994. In: NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC-47. Coral Gables, FL: National Hurricane Center, National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/NWS-NHC-1995-47.pdf

• Zwerdling, Daniel. “Researcher’s Ashes Scattered In Hurricane.” 09/05/1998. Radio. All Things Considered. NPR. https://www.npr.org/1998/09/05/1006481/hurricane

Partagás, September 1994. Credit: José Fernández Partagás Papers, Cuban

Heritage Collection, University of Miami Libraries, Coral Gables, Florida.

Dr. Fernández Partagás’ s name (fourth from the bottom) greets visitors at the

entrance of the planetarium in Havana, Cuba. Photo by Professor Luis Enrique

Ramos Guadalupe, Fundación Fernando Ortiz, Havana, courtesy of Gladys


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Physicists may be familiar with the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and similar member societies of the International Science Council. Less well known to some of them may be the existence of one such member, the International Union for History and Philosophy of Science and Technology (IUHPST), in which our International Commission for the History of Physics (ICHP) stands. The last terms of the commission, terms that last for four years, have been presided over by Alexei Kojevnikov, Olival Freire Jr., and now myself. And, what does the commission actually do? Well, with a yearly budget of around $2,000, the answer could easily be, “not much.” And yet, following the impulse of previous commissions, we are trying to promote the history of physics in as many international forums as possible, always with the help of in-stitutions such as the AIP Center for the History of Physics and the Niels Bohr Library & Archives.

The highlights of ICHP-promoted events are always the symposia organized at the International Congress of History of Science and Technology that happens every four years. The last one, in 2017, took place in Rio de Janeiro, and our symposium resulted in the publica-tion of a special issue, “Quantum Cultures: Historical Perspectives on the Practices of Quantum Physicists,” published in the 2019 volume of Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte—History of Science and Humanities. The next international congress is in Prague in 2021.

And yet this is not the only event the ICHP organizes. Every year we try to support or co-organize conferences, workshops, and meetings directly related to the history of physics. On this, and thanks to the strong links of the members of the current and previous boards with other institutions, the ICHP has been involved in supporting the meet-ings on the history of physics that the AIP History Center organizes every other year for early-career researchers in the history of phys-ics. The Fifth AIP Early Career Conference, originally scheduled for September 2020 in Copenhagen, Denmark, has been postponed to September 2021 because of the pandemic. The last conference, 2018 in San Sebastián-Donostia, Spain, was an interesting experience and one that triggered one of the current projects of the ICHP.

The Fourth Early Career Conference took place in the same loca-tion and at the same time as the Third International Conference for the History of Physics. This joint venture raised, as it usually

happens, the question of who actually qualifies as a historian of physics: professional historians of science often established in hu-manities departments? (there are not many of those); academics in research centers specifically devoted to the history of physics, such as the AIP center? (that is an even smaller category); or professional physicists “with an interest” in the history of physics? The latter is often a heterogeneous group, but it often includes serious work by very competent scholars, at times as part of their profession-al career, at times as a coda to it. Certainly, disciplinary tensions between these groups emerge from time to time, but the collabo-ration is often more beneficial than a hindrance. Proof of that is, for instance, a new trend in the historiography of physics in which historians and physicists jointly work on problems past and present.

With this in mind, the ICHP has started a worldwide survey of the field. A number of problems arose, among which two were essen-tial: who was to be considered a historian of physics and when did physics begin. Our survey has taken the following criteria. Initially, the time span will include physics once this was disengaged from natural philosophy, namely, towards the second half of the 18th cen-tury. Yes, this may leave scholars on Galileo and Newton out of the picture, but at a later stage we may go back in time. On the “who,” we have decided to browse as many journals as possible in search for authors who have published at least two history of physics pa-pers. These can be from specifically history of science periodicals but also from physics journals, as well as, periodicals aimed at a broader audience, such as Physics Today or the American Journal of Physics.

It is more than likely that as a result of this survey, which we hope to have ready by the Prague conference in 2021, the picture we get of the field increases in complexity and heterogeneity. We think this is good. As I was saying at the beginning, the ICHP is one of the commissions of the IUHPST. That makes sense, but only if we expand and manage to be present as a commission also in societies such as the IUPAP. As an example, both the American Institute of Physics and the European Physical Society have groups, divisions, or sections specifically devoted to the history of the discipline. It is our hope that this transverse presence can go fully international. That will depend on the good works of this and the next commis-sion as well as the help of physicists’ institutions.

THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION FOR THE HISTORY OF PHYSICSBy Jaume Navarro, Ikerbasque Research Professor, University of the Basque Country

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GRANT-IN-AID: PHILIPPE VINCENT About Philippe: Philippe Vincent is a PhD student of the University of Lille in France, working under the supervision of Prof. Raffaele Pisano. After obtain-ing his license degree in biology, computing and mathematics at the Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis and his masters degree in scien-tific mediation in Draguignan jointly with the Universities of Nice, Marseille, and Toulon, he shifted his interest to history of science and nature of science teaching-learning. He is currently working on the history of the discovery of gravitational waves.

What were you researching in your time at the Niels Bohr Library & Archives (NBL&A)? I came to NBL&A to research documents that were relevant for my thesis—the history of the discovery of gravitational waves and the historical roots of the concepts that led to the discovery—which I could not find anywhere else.

What collections and items did you consult at NBL&A in the course of your research? I consulted books and writings by Sir William Kingdon Clifford, microfilms with correspondence of Henri Poincaré, Émile Picard, and Arthur Korn, and many other things!


About Vijendra: Vijendra Agarwal is an emeritus professor and a life member of APS. He has served in various academic leadership positions at several institutions and has held a fellowship at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.

What were you researching in your time at NBL&A? As a novice physics historian with interest in women in physics, I was looking for reference books about legendary women physicists, their life, what inspired them, and their contributions to physics.

What collections and items did you consult at NBL&A in the course of your research? Books on Nobel Prize-winning women in science, their lives, strug-gles, and momentous discoveries, as well as books on physics repre-sented in postage stamps.

For more information about the program and how to apply, please visit https://www.aip.org/history-programs/physics-history/grants.If you have received a Grant-in-Aid and would like to be featured in this newsletter, please send an email to [emailprotected].


The Grants-in-Aid program at the Center for History of Physics supports research in the history of the physical sciences. Recipients have in-cluded academics in history of science, as well as economists, educators, and science writers. Grantees’ projects bring them to the manuscripts and other sources in the Niels Bohr Library & Archives or to other institutions with resources in history of physical science. Grants-in-Aid also support the conducting of new oral history interviews. Here are two recent Grant-in-Aid visitors to the Niels Bohr Library & Archives.

Philippe presenting scientific research at

Xperium, at the LILLIAD Learning Center

Innovation of Lille University. Credit: Prof.

Sophie Picard.

Photo of Vijendra Agarwal, PhD.

Credit: Unknown.

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The Niels Bohr Library & Archives (NBL&A), like many institutions, has a backlog of donations. As the library’s meta-data specialist, I am regularly processing books that, while new to NBL&A, are gen-erally a few decades old. This is not to say that we have a decades-old backlog. Rather, our donations often come from physicists whose collections span the length of their careers. This year I cataloged a donation that included nine different editions of the same textbook: Conceptual Physics.

In publication for nearly the past 50 years, Paul G. Hewitt’s Conceptual Physics has become a staple for many physics educa-tors. The textbook was first published in 1971 and has since expanded to accommo-date a wide range of audiences. Hewitt’s high school level and college level texts (the college level text is currently in its 12th edition) are perhaps his most well known. Yet, Hewitt has not shied away from niche audiences. Our recent donation included an unpublished copy of a concep-tual physics text prepared for elementary school teachers. This particular manuscript was likely the foundation for Hewitt’s 1998 mouthful, Conceptual Physics for Parents and Teachers: Especially Elementary School Teachers, Who, After Parents, Provide the Learning Foundation for Children—Mechanics.

As evidenced in the publications above, Conceptual Physics aims to make physics approachable to everyone. Hewitt attracts nonscientists by “translating the central concepts of physics from mathematical language to common English.” Conceptual Physics’ accessibility is achieved in part

through its use of illustrations. Hewitt, in addition to being the author, is also the illustrator. He has a background in sign painting, and his drawings greatly aid in the readability of physics concepts.

Take, for example, Newton’s laws of mo-tion. One could brush up on Latin and re-view our third edition copy of Newton’s Principia. Or, one could look at chapters 2, 4, and 5 of Conceptual Physics, which are sprinkled with visual aids (as can be seen on the opposite page). Both texts are important in their own right, but it’s fair-ly safe to say Conceptual Physics is more welcoming to the layperson.

Keeping his teachings contemporary, Hewitt has moved many of his physics lessons online with the creation of Hewitt Drew It, a series of screencasts that have been animated in Hewitt’s signature car-toon style. There are currently over 100 bite-sized (five to ten minute) videos avail-able to watch, for free, on YouTube.

Hewitt’s status as a physics educator has been exemplified in part by his prestigious awards (such as the Robert A. Millikan Medal), but also by the continuing rel-evance of his works. Case in point, the March cover of this year’s The Physics Teacher features one of Hewitt’s “Figuring Physics” cartoons on rainbows.

NBL&A collects successive editions of scientific texts, and Conceptual Physics is no exception. We currently have two shelves dedicated to the textbooks and their accompanying materials. This count excludes Hewitt’s contributions to the

kindred texts: Conceptual Physical Science and Conceptual Integrated Science, of which we also collect successive editions. While a complete collection of Hewitt’s work will test the boundaries of our build-ing’s infrastructure, NBL&A remains com-mitted to collecting this expansive popular physics textbook.


Right image: Conceptual Physics: The High School

Physics Program, 2nd ed. ©1992 by Paul G. Hewitt.

Credit: Paul G. Hewitt.

Above image: Vol. 58, No. 3, March 2020 cover of

The Physics Teacher. Credit: AAPT.

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Prior to my arrival in May 2017, the American Institute of Physics received a NASA research grant to conduct oral history interviews of relevant scientists and administrators who participated in the de-velopment of solar physics and space weather. Alongside talented graduate students from the University of Arizona and Johns Hopkins University, I had the opportunity to interview a significant sample of approximately 200 prospective interviewees. The experience was as enriching as it was instructive; the identification, collection, and interpretation of their scientific publication record, historical news-paper articles, and secondary literature permitted an exploration of a largely understudied area in the history of science.

During the early months of the project, the director of the Center for the History of Physics, Greg Good, held small meetings in his office to discuss our progress. As part of our research, we read and discussed one of the most important journals in this field, Space Weather Quarterly. While most articles were highly technical, each volume included editorials, news, and research highlights. The times spent in Greg’s office were instrumental in shaping our understand-ing of the culture behind these scientific fields, and the time al-lowed the freedom to ask salient and exciting questions about the importance of international collaboration, theoretical developments, and the ways that scientists in these fields communicated with one another. While the NASA project has proceeded smoothly since those early days, these experiences also served to highlight the importance of understanding and adapting to large-scale risks to modern civiliza-tion. Although governments around the world are increasingly and understandably focused on the impacts of global pandemics, these early discussions fueled my desire to learn more about the range of global risks that pose threats to humankind. If a huge burst of solar activity were experienced, for instance, telecommunication systems could fail, regional and national electric grids could be disrupted, and for all intents and purposes the electronic age could cease to

A RETROSPECTIVE ON MY POSTDOC AT CHPBy Gabriel Henderson, Postdoctoral Associate Historian, CHP

Gabriel Henderson. Photo courtesy of himself.

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exist. Scientists, I realized, were often global risk managers; their ideas about distant celestial bodies were closely interwoven with a global and dynamic system of ideas about planning for catastrophe. Ideas flowed about the nature of adequate preparedness to manage these risks, the Manichean nature of technology as both the producer and solution to these risks, and the value of foresight in ameliorating the consequences of risk.

While tending to my book manuscript and laying the groundwork for a career in academia, this notion of forecasting and adapting to large-scale and largely invisible risks lingered in the shadows of my own mind. After many months, I decided to do something about it. In the spring of 2018, I pitched a course idea for administrators of Georgetown University’s Science, Technology, and International Affairs program. A colleague was gracious enough to entertain my idea on contextualizing the role of forecasting technologies in mod-ern efforts to manage large-scale risks. Students would read relevant scholarship, learn to ask salient questions about how past actors negotiated the uncertainties of model forecasts, learn to interpret and communicate about global risks, and they would learn to relate national security and international relations with science.

To my amazement, I began to reevaluate my motivation to pursue a career in history. While I continued to labor away on producing scholarship rooted in deep analysis of archival documents and sec-ondary sources, the motivation to understand history gave way to a profound interest in the application of risk analysis outside of aca-demic environments. How do communities adjust to risks like solar flares, or pandemics, or climate change? What does it mean to define risk in a way that motivates people to alter their behaviors? Are risks human artifacts, and, if so, to what extent? How integral is language in the construction of risks?

With my students at Georgetown, I had learned to ask the questions and I had learned to answer some of them. But there were many

more, and the American Institute of Physics revealed in no uncertain terms that physics is inherent to the process of contemporary risk management. Catastrophic modeling, for instance, is heavily reliant on physical-mathematical knowledge of the natural world and is in-creasingly relied upon to forecast the costs associated with disasters. While the development of global climate models, or GCMs, first occurred in the 1960s and 1970s, these kinds of models combine the knowledge of diverse branches of science to validate decisions, inform adaptation and mitigation strategies, and guide private and public investment strategies by banks, nonprofit institutions, and national, regional, and—increasingly—local governments. Models, usually perceived as instruments of science, have become the tools by which risks become visible to institutions and people. Their value is integral to the construction of societal norms, their results are interpreted and adapted to diverse environments, and they are becoming the basis of modern decision making. While trained as a historian, it is increasingly obvious that new paradigms are being constructed, employed, and reflected upon as humanity learns to ask new kinds of questions about our capacity to evolve as a species.

So what do these dramatic and large-scale developments have to do with this retrospective? Everything. As my three-year fellowship at AIP ends, I see it has provided me a gateway to see beyond the scope of my own research agenda. It provided the physical space and intellectual freedom to confront the daunting reality of defining an alternative future, one in which I can convert my research skills, knowledge, and experiences into tools that I can use to participate in this grand evolution. Past events have shown that humans have the drive to acclimate to the unknown, and after many months I have concluded that the time is now for scholars of the humanities to de-fine new landscapes of opportunity that exploit their unique talents.

To Greg and the AIP family, thank you.

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The Wenner Collection has a tremendous resource for historians of science in the 12-volume series of Buffon’s Suppléments à l’Histoire Naturelle, Générale et Particulière. Part of his larger series, it includes: • Volumes I through IV: Servant de suite à la Théorie de la Terre,

et d’introduction à l’histoire des Minéraux. Volumes I and II were published in 1774, III and IV in 1776.

• Volumes V and VI: Servant de suite à l’histoire des Animaux quadrupèdes, published in 1777.

• Volumes VII and VIII: Servant de suite à l’Histoire Naturelle de l’Homme, 1778.

• Volumes IX and X: Contenant Les Époques de la nature, 1778.• Volumes XI and XII: Servant de suite à l’histoire des Animaux

quadrupèdes, 1782.• There are two volumes missing from the Wenner Collection in the

series, XIII and XIV, both on quadrupeds.

This is an interesting edition of the Supplément. In his notes about it, Wenner refers to the Époques as being in Volume V, but in this edition they are in IX and X. All were published “À Paris de L’Imprimerie Royale.” All but Volumes I, II, IX, and X state they have been cop-ied from a quarto edition (Suivent la copie in 4.0). There are two volumes in the Wenner Collection’s edition for each one of the quar-to edition by the same publisher. The books have probably been re-bound at some time and don’t show much wear from use; some are tightly bound and some have unopened pages. It would be interesting to know the history of this set! Volume I has a few undecipherable notations in pencil on a page at the front. There are a number of illus-trations as well as tables of contents for each volume.

Volumes I–IV, containing his revised theory of the Earth and the history of minerals, record Buffon’s extensive and meticulous ex-perimentation, testing his assumptions about the time necessary for

the Earth to come from a molten state to its current status. He em-ployed spheres of iron and those of a number of mineral composi-tions in various sizes, in states from molten (or as close as he could get to it) to the point where he could put his finger on it without burning, and finally to ambient temperatures. Pages of data and cal-culations record his reasoning as he worked through estimations of Earth’s age from more than 75,000 to millions of years by includ-ing factors such as changing sea levels and sediment accumulation. When he got to the Époques in Volumes IX and X, he still used his estimate of 75,000 years, although his accounts of a molten Earth progressing through all the stages to our currently observed world surely implied a far greater time.

The series is very well illustrated with exquisite drawings. Some of these are so large and folded so tightly it makes one question how many people have looked at them over their nearly 250 years since being printed. Here is an example:

The entire Histoire Naturelle of which the Supplément is a part is probably the best known of Buffon’s works, was written over 40 years from 1753 until 1789. It included 12 volumes on quadrupeds,


Vol. X, facing p. 372: Maps depicting the Earth from the two polar regions. Photo

by Corinne Mona.

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nine on birds, and five on minerals, as well as the original seven of the Suppléments. It displays the progression of Buffon’s thought, increasingly based on empirical evidence. The whole series con-tains Buffon’s building sense of the Earth’s history and includes his novel experimental methods of determining it.

Buffon is recognized as a major figure in the thought of life and Earth sciences in Europe and Britain in the 18th and into the 19th centuries, although his place in the hierarchy is disputed. Some of his well-known contemporaries, such as Condorcet, consid-ered him a charlatan. K. L. Taylor (1997, 1409) pointed out, “His more evident scientific successes were more in pointing in new and promising directions than in effecting definitive resolutions of particular problems.” His first notable work was in mathematics, where he was said to have independently discovered Newton’s bi-nomial theory when he was 20. He also introduced differential and integral calculus into probability theory (Roger, 577). Known for having influence in the right places, he was appointed to successive positions, ending as intendant at the Jardin du Roi, which led to his

turn toward the natural sciences. The writing is more in the style of natural history rather than pure science as he shared his expansive view of the world.

References:• Roger, J. 1970. Buffon, Georges-Leclerc, Comte de. Dictionary

of Scientific Biography, Volume 2. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. pp. 576–582.

• Roger, J. 1997. Buffon: A Life in Natural History. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

• Sloan, P. 2008. Buffon, Georges-Leclerc, Comte de. New Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Volume 1. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. pp. 431–436.

• Taylor, K. L. 1997. A Naturalist of Note. Book Reviews, Science v. 278, pp. 1409–1410.

• Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histoire_Naturelle, Accessed February 2020.

Vol. II, plate XV: A drawing of a burning mirror that Buffon used. Burning

mirrors could produce flames at their focal point and were used to achieve

high temperatures in Buffon’s era. Photo by Corinne Mona.

Vol. V, plate facing p. 102: Bison. Buffon was known for his view that New World

animals were “degenerate” and smaller than those in Europe. Thomas Jefferson

objected to that view. Photo by Corinne Mona.

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It was in Arthur Galston’s office in Yale’s Department of Biology when I thought to myself, “This is it. I’m an oral historian.” Galston, one of the country’s preeminent plant biologists and one of the key scientists who protested the US government’s use of Agent Orange in Vietnam, had graciously accepted my request to interview him about his participation in the campaign against herbicidal warfare—what he called an act of “ecocide” during the Vietnam War.

As I sat across the desk listening to him answer my questions, three thoughts popped into my head: 1) It is incredibly special to be here, capturing this history; 2) I really hope the audio recorder is working; and 3) This is what I want to do professionally.

It was 2007 and I was doing research for my dissertation and eventual book, The Invention of Ecocide. I had settled on a mul-tidisciplinary approach because the topic required it. Part history of plant science, part environmental history, and part Cold War history, I saw my project as part of a larger story about science and international security in the 20th century. Archival sources drew me to collections around the United States and in Vietnam, and almost all of the key scientific players were alive and agreed to participate in oral history interviews.

After wrapping up the interview with Arthur Galston, I asked myself: What does an oral history accomplish? Written sources can provide endless amounts of information, explanation, and perspective. An oral history, when done right, adds a level of tex-ture and humanity that can answer the historian’s fundamental set of questions: what happened, how it happened, and why it happened. Science is usually presented to the public as consist-ing of lab work, theory, and highly technical writing; it can be difficult to see the human stories behind the discoveries. Even for Galston, who maintained a highly public persona in the field of bioethics, the written record revealed only so much. I knew from Galston’s research on plant hormones that he advanced bot-any in fundamental ways. But it was his detailed, highly personal description of how he felt when he learned that the US military decided to weaponize herbicides in the early 1960s that allowed

me to understand his decade-long quest to end herbicidal war-fare—in Vietnam and around the world.

From 2008 until 2019 I worked in the Office of the Historian at the US Department of State. I drew on my experience in Cold War history for much of the work. Whenever the opportunity arose, I worked on history of science and oral history projects. Creating historical briefings for the Special Envoy for Climate Change and conducting oral histories of former US national se-curity officials provided unique, if infrequent opportunities to stay connected with my personal scholarly interests, but even-tually I wanted to return to my “natural habitat” in history of science and oral history.

The timing could not have been happier. It is a cliché, but I really did think the job announcement from AIP was too good to be true. But it was true. My visit to AIP was great, I felt right at home in the beautiful building and the ellipse, and it was obvious that my would-be colleagues were serious, dedicated, and kind. I accept-ed the offer with the following simple charge: I was to build a proper oral history program for AIP. From the beginning, I was able to draw on several advantageous elements. Greg Good, my boss and the director of the Center for History of Physics (CHP), had built a focused history program which was very well con-nected to both the physics and history of science communities. AIP’s interest in and support for the oral history program was apparent all the way up the chain, and I was thrilled to see that everyone saw value in physics heritage. I was happy to see that AIP and its Member Societies were maintaining a dynamic part-nership on many historical engagement projects, including the many oral histories of Member Society organizations that are in-cluded among AIP’s vast trove of oral histories. The unparalleled Niels Bohr Library & Archives and its staff showed me that AIP offered a truly scholarly environment. And the groundbreaking partnership between NASA and CHP to capture oral histories of key players in the world of heliophysics—and attract top-notch graduate fellows to lead in these efforts—convinced me that AIP could develop deep and successful institutional partnerships across every branch and specialty of physics.

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I see some of Arthur Galston in every scientist. Every physicist who made it through graduate school and pursued a successful career in the field has stories and insights to share that will help to preserve and promote the intellectual traditions and cumulative advancements that connect our generation to Newton’s. In every oral history, the personal tales of failure and successes, the seren-dipity in landing just the right postdoc, and the accidents leading to discoveries prove that science is a profoundly human endeav-or. And in oral histories of physicists, we can see this human endeavor encompass everything from the multiverse to the pro-ton. On that basis, my idealized inclination is simple: interview them all and work with them to create a narrative that traces their origins and reveals their profoundest dreams. Interview them all. Don’t prioritize subdisciplines, don’t try to divine trends in the literature, and don’t focus on award winners and luminaries. Just create unlimited interviewee target lists, get all the stories on file, and worry about organization later. In a world without constraints on resources or time, it might be a fine way to interview the (at least 10,000) physicists who fit the bill. But here in College Park, boundaries must be set.

At the outset I saw the plan as conceptualizing a theme and building out the interviewee list from there. There are four ba-sic “cones” for which we are pursuing, conducting, transcribing, reviewing, and publishing interviews. Some of the cones can be further subdivided; some cannot. I see all as foundational to the long-term growth and success of the oral history program.

Cone 1 includes conducting and managing oral histories of mem-bers of our Member Societies organizations. It should go without saying that the Member Societies are the lifeblood of AIP; it is thus the oral history program’s long-standing mission to assist Member Societies in all aspects of oral history interviewing—from training members in best practices, to managing the tran-scription process, we are here to ensure that oral histories are a robust component of how Member Societies celebrate their heri-tage. It has been my pleasure to be in close contact with the histo-ry liaison representatives of each society, and these communica-tions have given me the opportunity to work with members across

a range of unique initiatives. As a result of these discussions I have partnered with the representatives in numerous ways, from helping them to revamp their archival management practices, to consulting on virtual museums, to planning for centennial cele-brations. The glue that binds these endeavors is oral history, and I have been delighted to see across-the-board enthusiasm among the Member Societies to continue building and improving upon their interview practices and collections.

Cone 2 looks to capture as many oral histories as possible of eminent physicists who are advanced in age. Back in graduate school, I worked for the National D-Day Museum, which had contracted with Clint Eastwood’s production company to inter-view American veterans of the Pacific Theater during World War II. The all-encompassing drive of this project was urgency. Even then, the United States was losing many WWII veterans every day, and the obvious impetus in pushing forward with our inter-view plan went without saying: get the interviews now, before it’s too late. I feel this same urgency in my new role. The con-tributions of the generation of physicists in their 70s and 80s are as great as any of their predecessors, and their careers spanned decades, seeing some of the greatest discoveries in some of the most tumultuous eras in the entire history of physics. Capturing their stories, their perspectives, and their hopes for the future is too intrinsically valuable to be overly concerned with grouping the interviews according to this or that logic. It is with cone 2 that I feel I can most fully embrace my nagging instinct to interview everyone and worry about details later.

Cone 3 is inward looking. The American Institute of Physics embodies an ethos known internally is “One AIP.” The concept, embraced and promoted by our officers, holds that across the broadly conceived and diverse divisions within AIP, everyone is working under the same mission statement, and everyone is producing work of value well beyond his or her particular niche. It occurred to me early on in the job that oral history interview-ing would be particularly valuable in demonstrating the self-ev-ident truth of the concept. I took this as an opportunity not just

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to exchange pleasantries with my new colleagues but to get right into the heart of the matter: what oral histories can I do that would advance your mission, and who should I be interviewing who I might not think of on my own. There are many examples to illus-trate the point. Here’s one: AIP’s rollout of the Team Up Report, which highlights and analyzes the crisis of African American representation in physics, is headed by project manager Arlene Modeste-Knowles. Arlene presented highlights from the report at a recent all-staff meeting, and I was very impressed both with the conviction of her presentation and the quantitative depth of the report. As I was listening it occurred to me—who are the leading Black physicists who confront these issues daily, conceived solu-tions, and set in motion the institutional partnerships designed to achieve them? I met with Arlene shortly after her presentation and posed this question. The “One AIP” opportunities were ob-vious to both of us. She knew exactly who I should be interview-ing—people that should be on my target list regardless—and I would capture these oral histories. Arlene, in turn, could add these to her presentation as the rollout of the report continues. In short order Arlene put me in touch with Quinton Williams, chair of the Department of Physics at Howard University. Easily one of the most captivating and poignant oral histories I’ve ever had the privilege to capture, Williams shared with me the remarkable arc of his life, his leadership in the Black physicist community, and his cutting-edge research in battery technology. Williams’ clear and passionate take on the crisis of African American rep-resentation in physics and the underlying socioeconomic chal-lenges that underlie the problem—delivered in the context of the highly personal and introspective “cocoon” of all successful oral histories where the interviewer and interviewee are able to truly tune out the outside world—is about the most historically and sociologically powerful narrative that I could imagine. To the historical community who will find value in this oral history, and to those continuing to work on increasing the representation of Black people and other underrepresented groups in physics, this interview, and the circ*mstances leading up to it, is about the best distillation of “One AIP” that I can think of.

Cone 4 encapsulates oral histories that can be subdivided into broadly accessible issues that are designed to reach a wider audi-ence that is probably not tuned in to the world of physics. These themes will follow the formula “physics and X,” with “X” being some area of ongoing topical and timely import that everyone will care about to some degree. Here the possibilities are basically endless, and cone 4 provides the most fertile ground to make the oral history program a leader in history of science content and programming. I could allow my imagination to run away from me at this early stage, and there are many themes in the early concep-tual phase. I have begun to arrange and conduct interviews that fall under themes such as physics and climate change, physics and health, physics and faith, and physics and sports, to name only

a few. One bright spot stands out in the context of our national crisis caused by the novel coronavirus. Several months ago, and long before COVID-19 dominated our collective consciousness, I had the good luck to start with “physics and health.” As I write this, I have nearly completed interviews of all the major phys-icists at the National Institutes of Health, and I just conducted, amid our new pandemic-driven telework reality, the first of these interviews to be conducted over video teleconference. I settled on this theme as the first among many focused projects because I felt that health science is one of the least appreciated and understood of the many sectors in which physicists work. As a federal entity, the process to secure global approval from NIH was not easy. I drew on my experience navigating the government authorizations bureaucracy during my time at the Department of State, and I look forward to applying this process as I pursue institutional partner-ships at the Departments of Defense and Energy, the Food and Drug Administration, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology—agencies that employ physicists and where I have projects at various stages of development.

I am happy to report that the NIH sees the inherent value in this project—recognizing physics heritage at the NIH is something their communications professionals can put to effective use in any number of ways. In recognition of this, the director of the Office of Intramural Affairs generously offered to cover transcription costs for the interviews. As for the interviewees, a unifying idea that they have all expressed is that physics, defined broadly as a multidisciplinary approach reaching into dozens of subfields in biology and chemistry, plays a central role in nearly every aspect of the cutting-edge research that happens every day at the NIH. And yes, this includes the crash research program now underway devoted to finding a cure for COVID-19. Under the circ*mstances of our global emergency, I can think of no more powerful expres-sion in support of AIP’s mission statement to “advance, promote, and serve the physical sciences for the benefit of humanity.”

Finally, the Center for History of Physics is in growth mode. We are in the process of adding professional staff members, increas-ing our programming, conference participation, and social me-dia presence. The oral history program is front and center in this process. This is an exciting time to be at the American Institute of Physics and to be a part of a broader community that values and celebrates science as a fundamental public good. In pursuit of these goals, the ongoing development and success of the oral history program depends on partnerships across a wide array of the public and private sectors. Please, be in touch with ideas, sug-gestions, and contacts. At the heart of every successful project is collaboration, and I can only imagine all the great ideas out there that we can make a reality. I look forward to hearing from you.

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REVIVING A TRADITION: A COURSE ON THE HISTORY OF QUANTUM MECHANICS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGENBy Nathan Lombard (University of Montpellier, France), Stef Koenis (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), and Nathan Lima (Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil)

From the 1970s to the early 2000s, the physicist and histori-an of physics Erik Rüdinger—former assistant of Niels Bohr and founding director of the Niels Bohr Archive—held wide-ly acclaimed courses on the history of quantum mechanics at the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) in Copenhagen and elsewhere in the world (Rüdinger). This tradition was revived this spring by Ricardo Karam (Department of Science Education, University of Copenhagen) and Christian Joas (Niels Bohr Archive and Department of Science Education, University of Copenhagen). In February and March 2020, we had the chance to participate in their new course History of Quantum Mechanics, which was held in one of the historical auditoriums in Niels Bohr’s original institute at the Blegdamsvej 17 address in Copenhagen. We were part of a very diverse student body consisting of ten people from eight different countries (Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, France, Finland, Turkey, Brazil, and Indonesia), ranging from master’s students to postdocs, and including physics, mathemat-ics, and science education students.

The course lasted seven weeks (six hours of classroom teach-ing per week) and took us from the quantum hypothesis (1900–1905) to the axiomatization of quantum mechanics around 1930. From the first week, students were asked to study primary sources (in English translations, yet originals were always pro-vided as well), guided by “read me first” instructions prepared by Ricardo and Christian. Week 1 started with papers by Max Planck and Albert Einstein. In week 2, we studied Niels Bohr’s trilogy and a manuscript often referred to as the Rutherford (or Manchester) Memorandum. The following week, we studied the achievements of the Old Quantum Theory by reading yet an-other genre of primary source: Max Born’s 1925 textbook The Mechanics of the Atom. We then turned to Werner Heisenberg’s 1925 Umdeutung paper and matrix mechanics. Week 4 was de-voted to Erwin Schrödinger’s 1926 wave mechanics, based on his Four Lectures on Wave Mechanics that were delivered at the

Royal Institution in London in 1928 and on a presentation of his notebooks. During week 5, we learned how important concepts can emerge from works devoted to concrete problems, studying Born’s 1926 probabilistic interpretation. The following week was devoted to guest lectures by Helge Kragh, who discussed the Dirac equation and the story of spin. The last week of the course was devoted to early applications of quantum mechanics and to the first attempts at axiomatizing the theory.

Throughout the course, students gave oral presentations on se-lected topics that were not otherwise dealt with in detail during the course, and these presentations covered many different as-pects of the history of quantum physics. Topics included ear-ly nuclear physics, de Broglie’s phase waves, Schrödinger’s interpretation of the wavefunction, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, debates between Bohr and Einstein, the equivalence between matrix and wave mechanics, the mathematical structure of early quantum mechanics, Mara Beller’s views on the history of quantum mechanics, the origins of quantum field theory, and

Johanne de Leon presenting Moseley’s research. Photo by Christian Joas.

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the interpretational debates surrounding EPR. Along the way, given the diverse interests of the participants, we covered a lot of terrain, ranging from eminently physical and mathematical questions to topics in the history, philosophy, and pedagogy of science. For preparing these oral presentations, it proved very helpful that the extensive library of the Niels Bohr Archive was made accessible to all participants.

While Rüdinger’s course closely followed van der Waerden’s classic Sources of Quantum Mechanics, as well as the less-well-known two-volume set Quantum Mechanics by Tomonaga (van der Waerden), the present course was based on more recent schol-arship on the history of quantum mechanics, such as prominent-ly the recent Volume 1 of Tony Duncan’s and Michel Janssen’s Constructing Quantum Mechanics (Duncan and Janssen). The design of the course was overall very well adapted to students’ needs and levels. The course started off with a series of two-min-ute icebreaker presentations by students, which worked really well. During each session, Ricardo and Christian would lecture on both the context and some selected technical details of the course material. These lectures were very interactive and some-times even came down to struggling through original manuscripts together word by word. We really enjoyed this seminarlike format and found it motivating and conducive to our learning process.

We particularly liked that the course covered the full development leading up to quantum mechanics, as it provided us with more insight about the essence of quantum mechanics. Notwithstanding this large scope, we still closely read a significant number of orig-inal sources, which gave us a good feeling for how physics was being done in that very significant period. Many students indicat-ed that the most valuable thing in the course was that it gave them the tools to research historical matters independently in the future.

Finally, we much benefited from the small group size of about 10 students because it created an intimate atmosphere and was very conducive to student interaction. We think that teaching this course in its original format to more than 15–20 people might be challenging and that adjustments would probably have to be made in that case. Overall, the participants deeply enjoyed this course and learned a lot from it. So, we are happy to learn that Ricardo and Christian plan to make the course a yearly staple at NBI and hope that other universities will also consider adding similar courses to their physics curricula. Some of us came to Copenhagen from far away just to take this course, and we warmly recommend this to others interested in the history of quantum mechanics, from the master’s level and up. Teachers and students interested in the new Copenhagen course are encouraged to contact Ricardo ([emailprotected]) and Christian ([emailprotected]).

Author contacts and acknowledgments:[emailprotected]; [emailprotected]; [emailprotected]; with the help of Elina Palmgren, Adrien Techer, Muhammad Aswin Rangkuti, and David S. Dechant.

Attendees:Muhammad Asiwn Rangkuti (Indonesia/University of Copenhagen), Johanne de Leon (Denmark/Niels Steensens Gymnasium), Ricardo Karam (Brazil/University of Copenhagen), Elina Palmgren (Finland/University of Helsinki), Adrien Maël Techer (France/University of Copenhagen), David Dechant (Germany/University of Copenhagen), Christian Joas (Germany/Niels Bohr Archive and University of Copenhagen), Stef Koenis (The Netherlands/University of Copenhagen), Tuğbanur Di̇nçer (Turkey/Hacettepe University), Nathan Lima (Brazil/Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul), Helge Kragh (Denmark/University of Copenhagen), Jeppe Karnøe Knudsen (Denmark/University of Copenhagen), and Nathan Lombard (France/University of Montpellier).

References:• Duncan, Anthony, and Michel Janssen, Constructing

Quantum Mechanics, Volume 1, The Scaffold: 1900–1923 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019).

• Rüdinger, Erik, “On the Teaching of Introductory Quantum Mechanics,” American Journal of Physics 44, no. 2 (1998): 144148.

• van der Waerden, Bartel L., Sources of Quantum Mechanics (Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1967); Tomonaga, Sin-Itiro, Quantum Mechanics, Volumes 1 and 2 (Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1966).

An international crowd in Auditorium C (Adrien Maël Techer, Jeppe Karnøe

Knudsen, Muhammad Asiwn Rangkuti, Nathan Lima, Tuğbanur Dinçer, Elina

Palmgren, and Roberto Soares da Cruz Hastenreiter) Photo by Christian Joas

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One of the most rewarding and exciting parts of working in a library and archives is interacting with the researchers who need our collections for their books, articles, documentaries, radio programs, theses, and other projects. We caught up with Ainissa G. Ramirez, PhD., who explored our archival collections while researching and writing her new book, fresh off the press: The Alchemy of Us: How Humans and Matter Transformed One Another, published April 7, 2020. Dr. Ramirez received AIP’s Andrew Gemant Award in 2015.

Q: Please tell us a bit about your book. What drew you to the topic?

The Alchemy of Us explores how technol-ogy shaped us. It discusses the creation of eight materials science inventions—from steel rails to silicon chips—and then shows how those inventions changed culture. For example, readers will learn about some of the key inventors of the computer’s sili-con chips, where this invention allowed computers to think. But readers will also see how the proliferation of computers is changing human cognition. Humans invent things, but then those things reinvent us. This is the premise of my book.

As for what drew me to this topic, I al-ways wanted to know more about materi-als science from a historical point of view. When I was a materials science professor I occasionally used stories in my class to make lessons more engaging. This book is an exploration of materials science in context, but much more. I believe readers, students, scientists, and professors will en-joy learning about how our inventions fit in the larger cultural fabric. This book offers

a bird’s-eye view of the impact of materi-als, but also provides an occasion to think about the innovations on the horizon.

Q: How did you get into the history of sci-ence? What has your career trajectory been like?

My first love was science, but I always en-joyed history. I had a very animated history teacher back in my all-girls Catholic high school in Jersey City, New Jersey. It wasn’t until many years later that I found a way to marry both.

When I look back, I can see how this merger of science and history was brewing. When I was a young scientist at Bell Labs, I made sure I learned as much as I could about the important breakthroughs that took place there. I spoke to senior scientists, I visited old labs (like where the transistor was cre-ated), and I looked at old technical papers and books. This exploration enriched my knowledge. I understood the science be-cause of my doctorate from Stanford, but here at Bell Labs I was learning about the larger enterprise of science.

Over the years, I collected these experienc-es and eventually found the time to write up what I learned. I also dug a bit deeper and explored how life was altered as a re-sult of these inventions. Such topics are often left out of textbooks. My book, The Alchemy of Us, works in tandem with a textbook by filling in the human gaps. A textbook is practical and discusses how to

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Front cover of Ramirez’s book, The Alchemy of Us.

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use a scientific principle; my book tells the backstory of how an innovation came to be and the following consequences.

Q: How did you go about researching for your book? What was your starting point?

The book project started with a book pro-posal, which is a plan for what is going to be inside each of the chapters. But the next step was to find all the material to fill those pages.

In writing this book, I used both sides of my brain. My science brain was on fire be-cause the same way that I looked at data was applied to how I found things to write about. I had to scour many, many archives, papers, and books, looking for what I call a “gem,” that is, a little known fact, or per-son, or event, that I could use to make the topic come alive. For example, when I was writing about the well-covered topic of clocks, I needed to find a fresh take. One day, I found in an old book that there was a lady in London named Ruth Belville who sold time. She would visit various busi-nesses and show her accurate watch in an age when acquiring the precise time was otherwise not easy. For me, she was a way to explain the importance of timekeeping. The creative part of my brain was on fire too, because I had to tell her story and illus-trate how life was before and after the pro-liferation of clocks. Much like research pa-pers I wrote in the past, I had to learn a lot about her to write as precisely as I could. Unlike my previous research papers, how-ever, I could not use jargon, or the passive tense, or even think about using a formula. This book led to my own alchemy by in-stilling new skills in storytelling.

Q: What led you to the Niels Bohr Library & Archives? What was your research expe-rience like at NBL&A?

In my book, The Alchemy of Us, I discuss the development of the silicon chip and highlight one of its inventors, Gordon Teal.

While reading a book about the transistor called Crystal Fire, I saw that its authors had acquired materials from the Niels Bohr Library & Archives. When I searched the NBL&A website, I was so happy when I found that the authors had not only pointed me in the right direction, but had donated their research materials, too. Within the Crystal Fire files was a transcript of an in-terview with Gordon Teal. This was a re-markable find! With this transcript, which was straightforward to acquire, I was able to tell Gordon Teal’s full story. My book benefited greatly from these archival resources.

Q: Please tell us about how you became in-terested in Gordon Teal and the birth of the transistor.

I resonated with Gordon Teal because his contribution to the transistor was a break-through in materials science, which is my field of study. Teal made it possible for the transistor to go from a one-off experiment to a production-level device. He created a way to make semiconductor materials—the heart of the transistor—free from defects that would vary the behavior of one tran-sistor to another. However, Gordon Teal is largely overshadowed by the inventors of the transistor—Shockley, Bardeen, and Brattain. I wanted to bring Teal out of the shadows—as well as materials science—and bring him to center stage. In a lot of ways, Teal represents materials science in general, undergirding society but largely overlooked. My book was about bringing attention to both Teal and materials science.

From The Alchemy of Us: “Being a chemist [at Bell Labs] was a supporting role, not the starring one. It seemed that the other chem-ists around him were perfectly happy with this arrangement, but just like the liquids boiling in his lab, Teal was bubbling over to do more.”

Q: Are there other libraries and/or archives that were important in your research for the book?

I visited a lot of archives, from one-room historical societies in Connecticut to huge halls like the Library of Congress in DC. I also traveled to England to see the birth place of penicillin in London as well as read the papers of J. J. Thompson in Cambridge. It is important to visit the location where things happen so that you can “feel” the space. Also, it is important to go to archives because whatever you are looking for is not on Google. Archives don’t often scan their materials. It is im-portant that a researcher turns every page in a collection, as the consummate biog-rapher Robert Caro says, because some-times you might find something on a small scrap of paper that will send your project in a different direction. Such serendipity happened to me a number of times in the archives.

Q: Do you have any particular habits while you’re researching and writing, such as a certain time of day that you enjoy writing, music that you listen to, a certain food or drink, a lucky pencil, cell phone set to buzzing or silent?

When I was writing, I used an old Mac, which had an ancient operating system that had difficulty reaching the web. This prevented me from going down a Google rabbit hole and forced me to write. I

Portrait of Gordon Teal. Credit: AIP Emilio Segrè

Visual Archives, Physics Today Collection.

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preferred quiet spaces, and my cellphone was always on vibrate. If I had a tough time writing, I would set a timer on my computer for 20 minutes. I could always convince myself to write for that long. If I didn’t notice the timer, all the better.

I wrote my notes in a fancy notebook, which forced me to be extra neat, since my penmanship is not the greatest. I learned to appreciate index cards, too. They keep key facts and are easier to organize than a computer file. My method is very much a study of old tech. This was what worked for me. Everyone has to find a process that works best for them.

Q: What is the editing process like for you?

I always listened to what I wrote, that is, I either read it aloud or had the comput-er read it to me. This practice allows me to see if I’ve dropped any words, which I customarily do. But it also helped to make

sure what I wrote sounded appealing, that there was some musicality to it. I’ve been told that the role of a sentence is to make a reader want to read the next sentence. One way to ensure this is to make certain that the sentence carries the reader along to the next sentence using some mild form of rhythm. Of course, the information in the sentence is important, but how it sounds is important, too.

After I wrote something that wasn’t too embarrassing, I usually submitted it to my monthly writing group. (I recommend writing groups highly!) From their feed-back, I can see what worked or not. I can see if I was being unclear, even when I was convinced what I wrote was obvious. Sometimes I learned that parts I loved just needed to be deleted. Deleting something precious wasn’t always pleasant, but I’ve learned that everything that is written has to serve the reader’s understanding, no matter how beautiful a passage might

seem. If what you wrote doesn’t work, it has to go. It’s that simple!

About:Ainissa G. Ramirez, PhD. is a science evangelist who is passionate about getting the general public excited about science. Before taking on the call to improve the public’s understanding of science, she was an associate professor of mechani-cal engineering and materials science at Yale University. She now focuses her en-ergies on making science fun—check out her TED talk! In her newest book, The Alchemy of Us: How Humans and Matter Transformed One Another, available now, she examines eight inventions and reveals how they shaped the human experience. You can follow Dr. Ramirez on Twitter @ainissaramirez.

Cover image: Ainissa Ramirez. Photo by Bruce Fizzell.


Go online to subscribe to the AIP History Newsletter, the Emilio Segrè Visual Archives Photo of the Month, Ex Libris Universum, and the Lyne Starling Trimble Lectures:


Homer Dodge reads the newspaper while Margaret Wing Dodge looks on at home in

Iowa. Credit: ESVA, Dodge Collection.

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DOCUMENTATION PRESERVEDCompiled by Chip Calhoun, Samantha Holland, K. Jae, and Melanie Mueller.

Our report of new collections or new finding aids is based on our regular survey of archives and other repositories. Many of the collections are new accessions, which may not be processed, and we also include previously reported collections that now have an on-line finding aid available.

To learn more about any of the collections listed below, use the International Catalog of Sources for History of Physics and Allied Sciences at www.aip.org/history/icos. You can search in a variety of ways, including by author or by repository.

Please contact the repository mentioned for information on restrictions and access to the collections.

NEW COLLECTIONSAmerican Museum of Natural History. Library. Special Collections. Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024, USA

Kenneth Franklin papers and other materials relating to Leon Gold. Collection dates: circa 1960s–1970s. Size: 7 linear feet (7 boxes).

Hayden Planetarium, The Sky Reporter collection. Collection dates: 1947–1958. Size: 1 linear foot (1 box).

Hayden Planetarium materials and scientific publications. Collection dates: undated. Size: 2 linear feet (2 boxes).

Hayden Planetarium publications relating to astronomy. Collection dates: 1993–1995. Size: 1 linear foot (1 box).

Kalbfleisch Field Research Station collection. Collection dates: 1937–1982. Size: 1.5 linear feet (5 boxes).

Brown University. The John Hay Library. Manuscript Division. Providence, RI 02912, USA

Planetary Data Center records. Collection dates: circa 1976–1982. Size: 1 linear foot.

Willard P. Gerrish papers. Collection dates: 1874–1937 (bulk 1896–1920). Size: 1 box.

Mayo Dyer Hersey files. Collection dates: 1900–1978. Size: 2.5 linear feet.

Walter E. Massey files. Collection dates: 1969–1979 (bulk 1975–1978). Size: 2 linear feet.

Simon Ostrach papers. Collection dates: 1940–2005 (bulk 1970–2000). Size: 36.75 linear feet.

Charles H. Smiley papers. Collection dates: 1934–1977. Size: 20 linear feet.

Augustus William Smith papers. Collection dates: 1816–1918 (bulk 1820–1860). Size: 3.5 linear feet.

Winslow Upton papers. Collection dates: circa 1876–1969 (bulk 1876–1914). Size: 7 containers.

CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) Scientific Information Service. CH–1211 Geneva, Switzerland

Jack Steinberger papers. Collection dates: undated. Size: 1 linear meter.

Catholic University of America. The American Catholic History Research Center and University Archives. Washington, DC 20064, USA

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Nivard Scheel collection. Collection dates: 1944–1963. Size: 2.5 linear feet (5 boxes).

Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library. Butler Library, 6th Floor East, New York, NY 10027, USA

Shuhua Li papers. Collection dates: 1926–1972. Size: 1.6 linear feet.

I. I. Rabi papers. Collection dates: undated. Size: 22 linear feet (18 boxes).

Columbia University. University Archives, Columbiana Library. 210 Low Memorial Library, 535 W. 116th Street, MC 4316, New York, NY 10027, USA

Columbia Radiation Lab records. Collection dates: 1940s–1999. Size: 1.25 linear feet.

Lewis Morris Rutherfurd photographs. Collection dates: 1864–1865. Size: 4 photographs.

Fermilab. History and Archives Project Office, MS–109 PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA

Oral history interview with Bill Butler. Collection dates: 2013 October 30.

Oral history interview with Frank Cesarano. Collection dates: 2014 June 26.

Oral history interview with Bruce Chrisman. Collection dates: 2013 January 16.

Angela Gonzales papers. Collection dates: circa 1967–1999. Size: 13.25 linear feet (2 document cases, 9 records cartons, 1 box, 10 oversize boxes, and 2 flatfiles).

Oral history interview with Pat Oleck. Collection dates: 2014 March 11.

Hagley Museum and Library. Manuscripts and Archives Department. 298 Buck Road East, Greenville, DE 19807, USA

E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Atomic Energy Division. Savannah River Plant photographs and films. Collection dates: 1951–1984 (bulk 1951–1972). Size: 20 linear feet.

Harvard University. Archives. Pusey Library. Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

Alastair Graham Walter Cameron papers. Collection dates: 1959–1976. Size: 18 linear feet.

Adam Marian Dziewonski personal archive. Collection dates: 1933–2011 (bulk 1966–2011). Size: 25 linear feet (25 record cartons).

Harvard College Observatory Agassiz Station 60-foot radio telescope architectural drawings. Collection dates: 1955. Size: 0.01 linear feet (1 folder).

Harvard Science Center film collection. Collection dates: 1933–1998. Size: 61 16-mm films.

Paul C. Martin personal archive. Collection dates: 1950–2010. Size: 28 linear feet (28 record cartons).

Dade W. Moeller papers. Collection dates: 1966–1976. Size: 1 linear foot (1 record center carton).

Irwin I. Shapiro personal archive. Collection dates: 1949–2014. Size: 171 linear feet (157 record cartons and 1 flat box).

Henry E. Huntington Library. 1151 Oxford Road, San Marino, CA 91108, USA

George Ellery Hale manuscripts and photographs. Collection dates: 1870–1936. Size: 1 linear foot.

Gabriel Kron papers. Collection dates: 1963–1969. Size: 1 linear foot.

Donald Rait McGregor manuscripts. Collection dates: 1962. Size: 4 items.

Francisco Xavier Monteiro de Barros papers. Collection dates: 1812–1909. Size: 2 linear feet.

Johns Hopkins University. Special Collections, Milton S. Eisenhower Library. 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218, USA

Wilmer T. Bartholomew papers. Collection dates: 1919–1993. Size: 1.26 linear feet.

continued on page 34

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Carlyle Barton Laboratory technical reports. Collection dates: 1954–1968. Size: 1.25 linear feet.

W. W. Holland papers. Collection dates: 1903–1956. Size: 1.73 linear feet (3 legal size document boxes and 1 flat box).

Johns Hopkins University Department of Mathematical Sciences records. Collection dates: 1954–1992. Size: 25.21 linear feet (15 record center cartons, 17 letter size document boxes).

Johns Hopkins University Energy Research Institute records. Collection dates: 1979–1985. Size: 1.14 linear feet.

Walter Albert Patrick papers. Collection dates: 1901–1968. Size: 4.36 linear feet (9 letter size document boxes, 2 legal size document boxes).

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Institute Archives and Special Collections. M.I.T. Libraries, Rm. 14N–118, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA

Mildred Dresselhaus MIT Independent Activities Period (IAP) faculty lecture. Collection dates: 1989 January 25. Size: 3 audio cassettes.

Ira Dyer papers. Collection dates: 1967–1977. Size: 8 linear feet (8 record cartons).

Frederic Eppling papers. Collection dates: circa 1939–1959. Size: 1 linear foot.

Anthony P. French papers. Collection dates: circa 1950–present. Size: 22 linear feet (22 record cartons).

Judy L. Hoyt personal archives. Collection dates: 1982–2014. Size: 4 linear feet (11 manuscript boxes).

Shirley A. Jackson papers. Collection dates: circa 1995–1999. Size: 103 linear feet (103 record cartons).

Ali Javan papers. Collection dates: undated. Size: 20 linear feet (20 record cartons).

Richard C. Maclaurin papers. Collection dates: 1892–1908. Size: 2 linear feet (5 manuscript boxes, 1 legal manucript box).

MIT–Harvard Center for Ultracold Atoms TOPS program records. Collection dates: 2003–2016. Size: 4 linear feet.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics records. Collection dates: 1910–1990. Size: 29.25 linear feet (26 record cartons, 8 manuscript boxes, and 2 half manuscript boxes).

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Science and Fusion Center records. Collection dates: 1978–1979. Size: 0.2 linear feet (1 half manuscript box).

Robert Ogilvie papers. Collection dates: undated. Size: 2 linear feet (1 record carton, 2 manuscript boxes, and 1 glass slides box).

Irwin Oppenheim papers. Collection dates: 1928–2014. Size: 10.45 linear feet (10 record cartons and 1 legal manuscript box).

Gordon H. Pettengill personal archives. Collection dates: 1950–2004. Size: 44 linear feet (43 record cartons, 2 flat boxes).

Kenneth A. Smith papers. Collection dates: 1981–1983. Size: 0.6 linear feet (2 manuscript boxes).

Laszlo Tisza papers. Collection dates: circa 1920–2000. Size: 6.3 linear feet (2 record cartons, 13 manuscript boxes, and 2 half-manuscript boxes).

Northwestern University. Library. University Archives. Evanston, IL 60201, USA

Arthur J. Freeman papers. Collection dates: 1953–2012. Size: 100 boxes.

Robert C. Speed papers. Collection dates: 1933–2003. Size: 48 boxes.

Queens College of the City University of New York. Archives and Special Collections. Flushing, NY 10367, USA

Banesh Hoffmann papers. Collection dates: 1921–1990. Size: 12 linear feet.

Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. Schlesinger Library. Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

Eleanor Stabler Brooks papers. Collection dates: 1910–1959. Size: 8.46 linear feet.

Evelyn Fox Keller papers. Collection dates: 1966–2005. Size: 13.14 linear feet.

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Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Folsom Library. Institute Archives and Special Collections. Troy, NY 12180, USA

Robert Resnick papers. Collection dates: 1949–1993. Size: 4.5 linear feet.

Rice University. Fondren Library. Woodson Research Center. P. O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77001, USA

Fred Terry Rogers papers. Collection dates: 1929–1956. Size: 1 linear foot.

Reginald Dufour academic papers. Collection dates: 1979–1994. Size: 1 linear foot.

University of Michigan. Bentley Historical Library. Ann Arbor, MI 48109–2113, USA

Berlandier and Chovell, Observaciones Astronomicas and Meteorologic Observations. Collection dates: 1832–1835. Size: 3 volumes.

William J. Horvath papers. Collection dates: 1940–1985. Size: 3 linear feet.

University of Southern California. Library. University Archives. University Park, CA 90007, USA

Albert Einstein, “Annalen der Physik” papers collection. Collection dates: 1901–1922. Size: 0.21 linear feet (1 box).

Eric Reissner papers. Collection dates: 1927–1968. Size: 1.4 linear feet (2 boxes).

Vanderbilt University. Special Collections and University Archives. Jean and Alexander Heard Library, 419 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37203, USA

Edward Emerson Barnard papers (addition). Collection dates: 1877–1922. Size: 2 linear feet.

C. Rick Chappell papers. Collection dates: undated. Size: 23.82 linear feet.

John Daniel biographical file. Collection dates: 1896–1950. Size: 1 file.

Wendell Holladay collection. Collection dates: undated. Size: 2 linear feet.

Robert O’Dell papers. Collection dates: circa 1960s–2010s. Size: 34.5 linear feet.

Wellesley College, Clapp Library Wellesley, MA 02481, USA

Dorothy Weeks papers. Collection dates: 1913–1960, 1989. Size: 1.8 linear feet (5 boxes).

Over 50 teaching guides on the history of physics, astronomy, and other physical

sciences, highlighting contributions across the diverse community of scientists.


Teaching Guides on History of the Physical Sciences

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NEW FINDING AIDSAmerican Museum of Natural History. Library. Special Collections. Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024, USA

Thomas D. Nicholson papers. Collection dates: 1969–1989 (bulk 1969–1980). Size: 88 linear feet (51 boxes).

D. Owen Stephens collection. Collection dates: 1937 May 14–1937 June 8. Size: 32 items.

Brigham Young University. Harold B. Lee Library. Special Collections Division. P.O. Box 26835, Provo, UT 84602–6835, USA

Carl F. Eyring published papers. Collection dates: 1933 and 1948. Size: 2 items.

Vern Oliver Knudsen papers. Collection dates: 1927–1974. Size: 3 cartons, 11 oversize boxes.

Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library. Butler Library, 6th Floor East, New York, NY 10027, USA

Taras K. Novak papers. Collection dates: 1950–1968. Size: 6 boxes.

Dwight D. Eisenhower Library. Abilene, KS 67410, USA

Office of the Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology, records of Robert Cutler, Dillon Anderson, and Gordon Gray. Collection dates: 1952–1961. Size: 49 linear feet.

Harvard University. Archives. Pusey Library. Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

Harvard College Observatory, Office of the Director, records of Joseph Winlock. Collection dates: 1866–1875. Size: 5.27 linear feet.

High Altitude Observatory records. Collection dates: 1941–1953. Size: 20 containers.

Henry E. Huntington Library. 1151 Oxford Road, San Marino, CA 91108, USA

Albert D. Wheelon papers. Collection dates: 1940s–2012. Size: 46 linear feet (110 boxes, 2 oversize folders, 1 volume).

Iowa State University. Parks Library. Department of Special Collections. Ames, IA 50011, USA

American Statistical Association records. Collection dates: 1839–2012. Size: 101.28 linear feet (204 document boxes, 11 records center cartons, 1 oversize box).

George Fink papers. Collection dates: 1913–1971. Size: 12 linear feet.

Iowa State University Physics Department records. Collection dates: undated. Size: 0.2 linear feet.

Harry Svec papers. Collection dates: 1865–2013, undated. Size: 46.20 linear feet (28 record center cartons, 2 document boxes, 2 map case folders, 13 artifact boxes).

Daniel J. Zaffarano papers. Collection dates: 1959–2004. Size: 6.1 linear feet.

Johns Hopkins University. Special Collections, Milton S. Eisenhower Library. 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218, USA

Johns Hopkins University oral history collection. Collection dates: 1999–[ongoing]. Size: 9 linear feet (55 half-document cases).

Space telescope history project. Collection dates: 1952–1991, (bulk, 1970–1989). Size: 20.7 linear feet (16 record center cartons, 1 letter size document box, 1 flat box).

Aurel Wintner papers. Collection dates: 1848–1961. Size: 28.75 linear feet (21 record center boxes, 6 document boxes).

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Institute Archives and Special Collections. M.I.T. Libraries, Rm. 14N-118, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA

William Allis papers. Collection dates: 1924–1989. Size: 1.8 linear feet (1 record carton, 2 manuscript box, and 1 audiotape).

Archives of Useless Research papers. Collection dates: 1900–1990. Size: 8.9 linear feet (15 legal manuscript boxes, 6 manuscript boxes).

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Leo Beranek papers. Collection dates: 1924–2015. Size: 79.6 linear feet.

William W. Buechner papers. Collection dates: 1928–1978. Size: 4.7 linear feet (4 records cartons and 2 manuscript boxes).

Vannevar Bush papers. Collection dates: 1921–1974. Size: 25 linear feet (24 records cartons).

Harry Ellsworth Clifford lecture notes. Collection dates: 1897. Size: 0.1 linear feet (1 folder).

Morris Cohen papers. Collection dates: 1936–1990. Size: 13 linear feet (13 records cartons).

Samuel C. Collins papers. Collection dates: 1938–1983. Size: 1.7 linear feet (1 records carton and 2 manuscript boxes).

Eric Cosman papers. Collection dates: 1955–1984. Size: 4 linear feet (4 record cartons).

Martin Deutsch papers. Collection dates: 1936–2002.

Charles Stark Draper oral history collection. Collection dates: 1976. Size: 0.3 linear feet (6 cassettes).

Peter S. Eagleson papers. Collection dates: 1933–2010. Size: 6 linear feet (6 record cartons).

Gerald Lewis Epstein student notebooks. Collection dates: 1974–1978. Size: 3 linear feet (3 record cartons).

James Fisk papers. Collection dates: 1931–1977. Size: 3 linear feet (3 records cartons).

Francis Bitter National Magnet Laboratory records. Collection dates: 1957–1990. Size: 17.2 linear feet (16 records cartons and 4 manuscript boxes).

David Frisch papers. Collection dates: 1950–1990. Size: 4 linear feet.

Harry Goodwin papers. Collection dates: 1888–1936. Size: 0.3 linear feet (1 manuscript box).

George R. Harrison papers. Collection dates: 1916–1973. Size: 10 linear feet (10 records cartons).

Harold Hazen papers. Collection dates: 1920–1980. Size: 7.6 linear feet (7 records cartons and 2 manuscript boxes).

Henry W. Kendall papers. Collection dates: 1961–1997. Size: 14 linear feet (14 record cartons).

Arthur K. Kerman papers. Collection dates: 1950–2015. Size: 26 linear feet (26 record cartons).

Vera Kistiakowsky papers. Collection dates: 1964–1994. Size: 44 linear feet.

Thomas S. Kuhn papers. Collection dates: 1936–2000. Size: 28 linear feet.

M. Stanley Livingston papers. Collection dates: 1928–1986. Size: 3.5 linear feet (3 records cartons, 1 small oversize box, and 1 slide box).

Richard C. Lord papers. Collection dates: 1946–1981. Size: 32 linear feet (32 records cartons).

Margaret MacVicar papers. Collection dates: 1962–1990. Size: 12.5 linear feet (12 records cartons, 1 half manuscript box, and 1 oversize box).

Ad Hoc Committee on the Military Presence at MIT records. Collection dates: 1985–1986. Size: 5 linear feet (5 records cartons).

Apollo 17 Surface Electrical Properties Experiment records. Collection dates: 1969–1973. Size: 2 linear feet.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Physics curriculum materials. Collection dates: 1869–1971. Size: 1.6 linear feet (5 manuscript boxes).

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Physics records. Collection dates: 1875–1901. Size: 3 linear feet (3 records cartons).

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Nuclear Engineering curriculum materials. Collection dates: 1952–2002. Size: 106 linear feet (106 records cartons).

MIT Industrial Liaison Program records of member companies. Collection dates: 1948–. Size: 132 linear feet (132 record cartons).

MIT Industrial Liaison Program records. Collection dates: 1974–1995 (bulk 1974–1989). Size: 14 linear feet (13 records cartons and 3 manuscript boxes).

continued on page 38

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Laboratory for Nuclear Science addition to records. Collection dates: 1940–1989. Size: 15 linear feet.

Computers at MIT oral history collection. Collection dates: 1976–1977. Size: 1.5 linear feet (3 manuscript boxes and 19 cassettes).

Women in science and engineering oral history collection. Collection dates: 1976–1977. Size: 4 linear feet (11 manuscript boxes, 16 transcripts, 27 cassettes, and 60 tapes).

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Laboratory of Electronics records. Collection dates: 1944–2000. Size: 8.2 linear feet (3 records cartons, 14 manuscript boxes, and 3 half manuscript boxes).

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Rocket Research Society records. Collection dates: 1951–1962. Size: 1 linear foot.

MIT School of Engineering Office of the Dean records. Collection dates: 1943–2017. Size: 175.5 linear feet (171 records carton, 13 manuscript boxes and 1 half manuscript box).

MIT School of Science Office of the Dean records. Collection dates: 1951–1983. Size: 30.3 linear feet (29 records cartons, 2 manuscript boxes, and 2 oversize boxes).

David Middleton papers. Collection dates: 1943–2000. Size: 22 linear feet (21 records cartons and 3 manuscript boxes).

Northeast Radio Observatory Corporation records. Collection dates: 1965–1991. Size: 3 linear feet (3 records cartons).

John T. Norton papers. Collection dates: 1936–1966. Size: 0.7 linear feet (2 manuscript boxes).

Wayne B. Nottingham papers. Collection dates: 1923–1964. Size: 6.6 linear feet (6 records cartons and 2 manuscript boxes).

William Parrish papers. Collection dates: 1937–1991. Size: 6 linear feet (6 record cartons).

Edward C. Pickering papers. Collection dates: 1867–1869. Size: 0.2 linear feet (1 half manuscript box and 1 reel microfilm).

Frank Press papers. Collection dates: 1945–2013. Size: 94.1 linear feet (90 records cartons and 2 reels microfilm).

David J. Rose papers. Collection dates: 1949–1984. Size: 22 linear feet (22 records cartons).

David S. Saxon papers. Collection dates: 1969–1991. Size: 5.3 linear feet (5 records cartons, 1 manuscript box, and 2 audio tapes).

Science for the People records. Collection dates: 1969–1992. Size: 8 linear feet.

Herbert Scoville papers. Collection dates: 1947–1985. Size: 9 linear feet (9 records cartons).

Alice Kimball Smith papers. Collection dates: 1944–1993. Size: 7 linear feet (7 record cartons).

Cyril Stanley Smith papers. Collection dates: 1922–1992. Size: 28 linear feet (27 records cartons, 1 manuscript box, 1 oversize box, and 1 small box).

Louis Smullin papers. Collection dates: circa 1930–2000. Size: 16 linear feet (16 record cartons).

Victor Starr papers. Collection dates: 1948–1975. Size: 13.9 linear feet (13 records cartons, 2 manuscript boxes, 1 half manuscript box).

Herbert R. Stewart papers. Collection dates: 1920–1985. Size: 1.6 linear feet (1 records carton and 2 manuscript boxes).

Julius Stratton papers. Collection dates: 1907–1994. Size: 78.6 linear feet (73 records cartons and 15 manuscript boxes). 42 additional linear feet aquired in 1996 (not described in this record).

Samuel W. Stratton papers. Collection dates: 1881–1934. Size: 4 linear feet (9 manuscript boxes and 2 oversize boxes).

Union of Concerned Scientists papers. Collection dates: 1964–1986. Size: 112.2 linear feet (112 records cartons and 1 tube).

George Edward Valley Jr. papers. Collection dates: 1969–1974. Size: 1 manuscript box.

Arthur von Hippel papers. Collection dates: 1919–1986. Size: 14.7 linear feet.

David F. Waugh papers. Collection dates: 1932–1989. Size: 18.9 linear feet (17 records cartons, 3 manuscript boxes, 2 half manuscript boxes, and 1 oversize box).

Dorothy Walcott Weeks papers. Collection dates: 1940–1980. Size: 0.2 linear feet (1 half manuscript box).

Jerome B. Wiesner papers. Collection dates: 1949–1994. Size: 215.3 linear feet (215 records cartons and 4 audio cassettes). 57 linear feet added in 1995.

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Hurd Willett papers. Collection dates: 1901–1985. Size: 2.3 linear feet (2 records cartons and 1 manuscript box).

Jerrold R. Zacharias papers. Collection dates: 1912–1986. Size: 38 linear feet (35 records cartons, 4 manuscript boxes, 1 oversize box, and 1 oversize volume).

William A. Zisman papers. Collection dates: 1925–1975. Size: 4.6 linear feet (4 record cartons, 2 manuscript boxes).

Rice University. Fondren Library. Woodson Research Center. P. O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77001, USA

Jim Newman space mementos. Collection dates: 1993. Size: 0.25 linear feet.

Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). National Accelerator Laboratory. Archives and History Office. 2575 Sand Hill Road, MS 97, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA

Wolfgang Panofsky papers. Collection dates: 1932–2008. Size: 220 linear feet.

University of Michigan. Bentley Historical Library. Ann Arbor, MI 48109–2113, USA

David M. Gates papers. Collection dates: 1910–2016. Size: 8.8 linear feet (9 boxes).

University of Pennsylvania. Van Pelt–Dietrich Library Center. Annenberg Rare Book & Manuscript Library. 3420 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104–6206, USA

Correspondence to Ernest Maindron. Collection dates: 1838–1891. Size: 78 items (88 leaves).

John Ewing notebooks on astronomy and physics. Collection dates: 1784–1796. Size: 5 items.

University of Southern California. Library. University Archives. University Park, CA 90007, USA

Claude C. Van Nuys notebooks, correspondence, research reports. Collection dates: 1906–1952. Size: 2 linear feet (2 boxes).

G. L. Weissler papers. Collection dates: 1918–1989. Size: 0.42 linear feet (1 box).

Vanderbilt University. Special Collections and University Archives. Jean and Alexander Heard Library, 419 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37203, USA

Robert T. Lagemann papers. Collection dates: 1934–1994. Size: 60 linear feet. Unprocessed.

William Thomas Pinkston papers. Collection dates: circa 1970s–1980s. Size: 3.34 linear feet (8 Hollinger boxes).

Tennessee Academy of Science records. Collection dates: 1912–1947. Size: 13.75 linear feet (11 boxes).

Wellesley College. Archives. Margaret Clapp Library, Wellesley, MA 02481, USA

Wellesley College Department of Physics records. Collection dates: 1887–1992. Size: 6.3 linear feet (4 cartons, 6 boxes).

Yale University Library. Manuscripts and Archives. Box 208240, New Haven, CT 06520, USA

Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau manuscripts. Collection dates: 1868–1895. Size: 0.5 linear feet.


Niels Bohr Library & Archives

Center for History of Physics@aip_history

Niels Bohr Library & Archives@AIP_Library

AIP History

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We gratefully acknowledge the support of many Friends whose contributions have helped to preserve and make known the history of physics and allied sciences. This list is our public acknowledgment of Friends who contributed in 2019 to the Center for History of Physics. Patrons contributed $2,500 or more; Sponsors contributed $1,000 to $2,499; Colleagues contributed $500 to $999; Associates contributed $250 to $499; and Members up to $249. Bookplate donations honor or memorialize a colleague while supporting the purchase or conservation of rare books. * Designates our Physics Heritage Donors, who have given each year for the past seven years or more. + Designates a recently deceased donor. If you would like to join the Friends in supporting the Center for History of Physics, please write to us at One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740-3843, call 301-209-3006, email [emailprotected], or visit our web page at https://donate.aip.org/helphistory.


PATRONSAnonymousCharles W. ClarkRic & Jean EdelmanRobert H. G. Helleman+Ruel C. MercureCharles G. MyersRobert & Sally NewcombJoseph Y. Shapiro+Benjamin B. Snavely*

SPONSORSLewis M. BranscombJames R. Clynch*Nancy GreenspanBill Hassinger Jr.Judy C. Holoviak*Kate P. KirbyRonald E. MickensMichael H. MoloneyJohn & Patricia PegramMike J. PiorkowskiGordon P. Riblet*James L. Smith*

COLLEAGUESMarc H. Brodsky*Ralph L. BurnhamTom ChristensenEdward K. Conklin*Judy R. Dubno

Loyal Durand IIITanya L. EastonWilliam & Nancy EvensonTheodore & Frances Geballe*Bernard Gottschalk*David J. HelfandKenneth R. Hogstrom*Arlo U. Landolt*Stephen J. MackwellChristopher H. Marshall*Robert A. MorseRobert K. Rader*Don D. ReederSteven R. Riedhauser*Diana W. RigdenMike RubyKeith Runge*Luther W. Smith*Spencer R. Weart*Eri Yagi

ASSOCIATESStephen L. AdlerPeter R. AlmondWilliam A. BardeenDerek BoydWilliam F. Brinkman*David C. Cassidy*Edward N. ClarkeJohn W. Cook*Thomas & Brenda Corbin

Peter Cziffra*Arthur EisenkraftKenneth W. Ford*Paul FormanEdwin R. Fuller Jr.*Donna HammerJames E. Hammerberg*Shaun Hardy*Rush D. HoltLouis J. Lanzerotti*James D. Larson*Michael C. MorganPhilip E. NielsenT. Douglas ReillyR. G. Robertson*D. Keith RobinsonCarl Rosenfeld*Ronald K. SmeltzerCharles M. Sommerfield*James StoneRichard D. Taylor III*Bjarne E. UrsinJean-Francois S. Van Huele*Robin & Antoinette Verdier*

MEMBERSAnonymous (3)Louis W. Adams Jr.*Mercedes M. AgoginoHarvey A. AlperinLawrence Alquist

HISTORY - AIP - [PDF Document] (41)

www.aip.org/history-programs 41History Newsletter | Volume 52, No. 1

B. Jeffrey AndersonR. Joseph AndersonMichael Wayne Arenton*Dewayne A. Backhus*Jennifer Lynn BartlettGordon A. BaymLeonard C. BeavisFrederick D. Becchetti Jr.Carl E. BergsagelRose BetheSteven Arnold BleierJohn David BohlinCharles A. Bordner*J. Daniel BourlandTimothy H. BoyerJohn C. BrowneWilliam R. BurdettPatricia V. Burke*Bruce C. BurkeyEarl F. Burkholder*Stephen H. Burns*D. H. CarlsonStephen & Margaret CaseDiego Jesus CastanoJoseph Cerny*Patrick CharbonneauMorrel H. CohenKatherine M. CondonRobert C. Cook*Patrick C. Crane*Stephen Craxton*Jan & Lynn DashSamuel DenhamStanley DeserAlexander K. DickisonRichard Jonas Drachman*Philip Lewis DreikeMichael D. DuncanLarry V. East*Fred T. Erskine*Steven Robert Federman*Richard B. FerenJoe & Jean FergusonRobert W. FieldPhilip C. Fisher*Edward R. FlemingAllen Flora*Kenneth Fowler*Eduardo H. FradkinCharles Lee FrancisAlbert J. Franco

Laurence W. FredrickMark R. GanderDonald GelmanOwen GingerichRobert P. GodwinGordon L. Goodman*Howard GordonHarvey A. GouldClemence R. GraefRichard W. GranvilleSol & Rosemarie Gruner*William J. GunningRajendra Gupta*Blanca L. HaendlerMelvyn L. Halbert*Thirumala Raya HalemaneBertrand & Helena HalperinJorgen L. Hansen*Wesley H. Harker*Marguerite HarningAlan W. Harris*Frederick A. Harris*Jeffrey C. Hecht*Lewis C. HechtJack G. HehnOtto HeinzGeorge A. Herbert Jr.*Herman HeynBrant E. HinrichsJeanne HladkyLillian H. Hoddeson*Richard B. HolmesGerald HoltonRosamond Hooper–HamersleyMichael S. HumnickyPieter IniaJames S. Jarratt*Robert L. JohnsonMichael D. Jones*Richard R. JoyceKern KenyonCharles H. King Jr.*Philip W. KingPaul I. KingsburyRobert H. KleinEdward & Adrienne KolbRikio Konno*Thomas A. Koster*Paul KozlowskiJohn Kronholm*Marvin S. Kruger

Roger O. Ladle*Neal F. LaneTimothy Paul LargyRobert G. Lauttman Sr.A. C. Lawson*William J. LaytonRichard Gaylord LeamonHarvey S. LeffDavid R. Lide Jr.Donald H. LiebenbergJohn H. LowensteinChris Lubicz–NawrockiRobert L. MaherVincent M. MartinekKevin B. MarvelFrederick J. MayerJohn A. McKinneyJonathan MerselCarla G. MessinaAndre F. MichaudonHerman L. MillerKurt R. Moore*Faith MorrisonSteven A. MoszkowskiGeorge P. Mueller*Mark R. Mueller*Mark Nagumo*Indira NairRichard J. Noer*Marilyn E. NozMary Jo NyeJan H. J. Oelering*Robert OlnessCatherine O’RiordanWilliam H. OrttungWilliam A. ParkerNeil K. Perl*Peter PesicMichael Plett*John K. PribramKay M. PurcellMonroe S. Z. Rabin*Michael RabinowitzStephen J. Rant Jr.Lanny RayAlbert J. Read+Robert P. RedwineRandolph A. ReederJohn E. RhoadsMatthew Richter

continued on page 42

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www.aip.org/history-programs42 History Newsletter | Volume 52, No. 1

Paul E. RiderHoward K. Rockstad*Edward John Rojek*Robert RolewiczRobert A. RosensteinLawrence G. Rubin*Roy RubinsteinKenneth S. RumstayRobert SahakyanAkira SakaiRichard H. SandsWalter ScaffRobert & Barbara Schneider*Leroy W. SchroederBrian B. Schwartz*Melvin J SchwartzBertram M. SchwarzschildHoward ShaferAlan E. Shapiro*Yitzhak Y. SharonLary R. Smith

Eugene R. Smith Jr.James L. Snelgrove*Daniel I. SoberSiavash H. SohrabLee R. SorrellPhilip A. StahlRobert W. Standley*Walter A. Stark Jr.Richard Stephens*Ian E. Stockdale*Alan J. StraussBertram Strieb*Harry Stuckey*Folden B. Stumpf*Jean Hebb SwankCatherine SwartzJulius TabinHarvey D. TananbaumFrank Robert TangherliniMarylin Joy TaylorGeorge Tessler*

Deborah T. TollJohn P. TranchinaSam B. TrickeyVirginia TrimbleThomas Von FoersterMichael S. WalkerDavid L. WallachRonald A. WaltonCharlotte WardJack & Deborah WarnerStephen H. WhiteRalph M. WilcoxDonald Wilke*Brenda & Manfred WinnewisserBradford L. Wright*Clyde S. Zaidins*Carl R. Zeisse*Al ZellerWalter Bruce Zimmerman

The Fifth Biennial Early-Career Conference for Historians of the Physical Sciences

The American Institute of Physics (AIP) Center for the History of Physics is pleased to announce a fifth international conference for graduate students and early career scholars hosted by the Niels Bohr Archive in Copenhagen, Denmark. The conference will be held in September 2021, rescheduled from September 2020. Precise dates to be announced. The goal of this conference is to foster communication and collaboration amongst junior scholars and to provide a forum for exploring and reflecting upon current issues in the historiography of the physical sciences.

To submit an application or for more information, please contact [emailprotected] or visit the conference website at www.aip.org/history-programs/physics-history/early-career-conference.

Crossing Borders and Fostering Collaborations

HISTORY - AIP - [PDF Document] (43)

www.aip.org/history-programs 43History Newsletter | Volume 52, No. 1

The Fifth Biennial Early-Career Conference for Historians of the Physical Sciences

The American Institute of Physics (AIP) Center for the History of Physics is pleased to announce a fifth international conference for graduate students and early career scholars hosted by the Niels Bohr Archive in Copenhagen, Denmark. The conference will be held in September 2021, rescheduled from September 2020. Precise dates to be announced. The goal of this conference is to foster communication and collaboration amongst junior scholars and to provide a forum for exploring and reflecting upon current issues in the historiography of the physical sciences.

To submit an application or for more information, please contact [emailprotected] or visit the conference website at www.aip.org/history-programs/physics-history/early-career-conference.

Crossing Borders and Fostering Collaborations

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